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 +0  (nbme24#37)
  • total T4 (or T3) = free + TBG-bound
  • pregnancy → TBG increase → TBG-bound T4 increase → free decrease → less negative feedback → more TSH → restore free T4 levels

 +0  (nbme24#30)
  • SIADH → euvolemic hyponatremia → normotensive / hypertensive
  • ACTH increases cortisol → hypertension (alpha-1 upregulation & cortisol can bind to aldosteron receptors at high concentrations)
  • ACTH increases aldosterone → hypertension + hypokalemia (K+ dumped in collecting duct)

If patient -only- had hypertension: ACTH more likely than SIADH.

Patient with hypertension AND hypokalemia: 100% ACTH.

Don't feel bad friends, I also had this question wrong :(...


 +0  (free120#31)

36 hour surgery:

  • perforated bowel
  • multiple facial reconstruction
  • ORIF of left femur

...oral acetaminophen is not gonna cut it after major surgery. Also, our opioid crisis is mainly due to overprescription/misuse in chronic pain patients.


 +1  (nbme22#9)

Some extra thoughts on distinguishing between Roseola/Parvo. I was a little thrown off by the:

  • fever since 1 week
  • rash since 4-days
  • my brain → rash after 3 day fever = Roseola

_

However, if I had read more carefully:

  • rash did not spare face
  • no mention that fever was gone after 3 days, might still have fever
  • 5-year old boy; Roseola usually in 6m-2year old.

 +0  (nbme22#1)

Newly born → ligament of Treitz on the wrong side → something went wrong with rotation...

In the 10th week the midgud rotates 270 degrees counterclockwise around the superior mesenteric artery (FA2019 pg352).


 +0  (nbme22#49)

Countertransference (FA2019 pg. 542) = doctor projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto patient (e.g. Epstein didn't kill himself).


 +1  (nbme22#15)

Finger flexion done by:

  • FDP = flexor digitorum profundus (flexes DIP)
  • FDS = flexor digitorum superficialis (flexes PIP)

_

Innervation:

  • FDS 2/3/4/5 by median (C5-T1)
  • FDP 2/3 by median (C5-T1)
  • FDP 4/5 by ulnar (C8-T1)

_

Our patient can't flex DIP of ring finger → FDP4 → ulnar → C8-T1.

Only possible answer we can pick is C8.


 +0  (nbme22#28)

Iron accumulation causes free radical damage in organs:

  • liver → dysfunction / ascites / cirrhosis
  • pancreas → glucose intolerance (diabetes)
  • heart → cardiac enlargement (LVF can leads to prominent pulmonary vasculature)

Also notice patient + older brother are >40, which is when total iron body accumulates enough to cause symptoms.


 +0  (nbme22#30)

Primary olfactory cortex is located in the temporal lobe.

clickhere


 +0  (nbme22#45)

Our patient has a metabolic alkalosis with (partial) compensatory respiratory acidosis.

_

Metabolic alkalosis → H+ loss or HCO3- gain:

  • vomiting: lose H+ (and lose K+/Cl-)
  • loop diuretics: lose H+ (and K+)

_

Metabolic acidosis, possible causes in this context:

  • diarrhea/laxatives → lose HCO3- (and K+) ; Cl- compensatory increase (normal anion gap)
  • acetazolamide → lose HCO3- (and K+) ; H+ also decreases but not enough to overcome the alkalosis caused by HCO3- loss
  • spironolactone

 +0  (nbme22#32)

You mostly lose HCO3- and K+ in stool.

Loss of HCO3- leads to a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis (FA2019 pg. 580 'HARDASS'), in which we also see a compensatory increase in Cl-.


 +0  (nbme22#1)

Here we go:

  • decreased LV contractility (bilateral crackles)
  • decreased cardiac output
  • activate RAAS → ADH
  • increase sympathetic activity → more RAAS → more ADH

 +0  (nbme22#47)
  • DIC, unlikely: PT/PTT normal; wouldn't just see gum bleeding
  • hypersplenism: would cause anemia
  • iron deficiency: anemia
  • vitamin C deficiency: wouldn't cause thrombocytopenia
  • von Willebrand disease: mixed platelet/coagulation disorder → would cause deep joint bleeding instead of mucosal membrane bleeding. Inherited (Autosomal Dominant), would see symptoms before. PTT can be normal/high.

 -2  (nbme23#37)

I tried to calculate it more precise, and messed up the answer...

Here is why:

  • 99.7% CI = 3 SD
  • However: 99.0% CI is actually 2.5 SD (or 2.57 if you want to be more precise)

1 SD = 1.5 mmHg → 2.5 SD = 3.75 mmHG

This results in a 99% CI of 109.25 (113-3.75) to 116.75 (113+3.75)

Closer to answer C than B.


 +0  (nbme23#26)

Case = Middle-aged female with severe hypertension (180/120 mmHg), and an aneurysm.

(1) Main cause of renovascular diseae in middle-aged females = fibromuscular dysplasia (FA2019 pg. 592).

(2) Also notice the -classic- 'string-of-beads' appearance of the artery: EXAMPLE





Subcomments ...

submitted by seagull(467),

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastomycosis#/media/File:Blastomyces_dermatitidis_GMS.jpeg

I believe this is actually disseminated Blastomyces due to the "Broad Based Budding" as seen in the picture.

seagull  However, given the stain and some of the features I now see that this is most likely Crypto. THey like similar. my bad +6  
mjmejora  oh what a catch! I also thought this was Blasto until you explained otherwise +  
drmohandes  Blasto = broad-based budding, the two 'circles' look equal in size. Crypto = narrow-based -unequal- budding. +1  


submitted by vshummy(58),

So the best i could find was in First Aid 2019 pg 346 under Diabetic Ketoacidosis. The hyperglycemia and hyperkalemia cause an osmotic diuresis so the entire body gets depleted of fluids. Hence why part of the treatment for DKA is IV fluids. You might even rely on that piece of information alone to answer this question, that DKA is treated with IV fluids.

fulminant_life  I just dont understand how that is the cause of his altered state of consciousness. Why wouldnt altered affinity of oxygen from HbA1c be correct? A1C has a higher affinity for oxygen so wouldnt that be a better reason for him being unconscious? +3  
toupvote  HbA1c is more of a chronic process. It is a snapshot of three months. Also, people can have elevated A1c without much impact on their mental status. Other organs are affected sooner and to a greater degree than the brain. DKA is an acute issue. +1  
snafull  Can somebody please explain why 'Inability of neurons to perform glycolysis' is wrong? +1  
johnson  Probably because they're sustained on ketones. +1  
doodimoodi  @snafull glucose is very high in the blood, why would neurons not be able to use it? +1  
soph  @snafull maybe u are confusing bc DK tissues are unable to use the high glucose as it is unable to enter cells but I dont think thats the case in the neurons? +  
drmomo  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2909073/ states its primarily due to acidosis along wth hyperosmolarity. so most relevant answer here would be dehydration +  
drmohandes  I thought the high amount of glucose in the blood (osmotic pressure), sucks out the water from the cells. But you also pee out all that glucose and water goes with it. That's why you have to drink and pee a lot.. +1  
titanesxvi  Neurons are not dependent on insulin, so they are not affected by utilization of glucose (only GLUT4 receptors in the muscle and adipose tissue are insulin dependent) +  


submitted by m-ice(135),

Misoprostol is a prostaglandin analog (PGE2) that acts on the stomach to promote mucus protection of the stomach lining, but also acts in the uterus to encourage contraction, which makes it useful for abortion.

usmile1  perfect except it is a PGE1 analog, not 2 +  
krewfoo99  PGE2 will increase uterine tone (Pg. 270 FA 2018) +  
drmohandes  Misoprostol prevents NSAID-induced peptic ulcers. Side-effect: also gets rid of baby. +  


submitted by m-ice(135),

The patient needs medical attention immediately, which eliminates obtaining a court order, or transferring her. A nurse does not have the same training and qualifications as a physician, so it would be inappropriate to ask them to examine the patient. Asking the hospital chaplain again could be inappropriate, and would take more time. Therefore, the best option among those given is to ask the patient if she will allow with her husband present.

sympathetikey  Garbage question. +19  
masonkingcobra  So two men is better than one apparently +5  
zoggybiscuits  GarBAGE! ? +  
bigjimbo  gárbágé +  
fulminant_life  this question is garbage. She doesnt want to be examined by a male how would the presence of her husband make any difference in that respect? +1  
dr.xx  I guess this is a garbage question because what hospital, even small and rural, does not have a female physician on staff. NBME take notice -- this is the 2010s not 1970s. https://images.app.goo.gl/xBL4cK31ta7nG4L39 +1  
medpsychosis  The question here focuses on a specific issue which is the patient's religious conservative beliefs vs. urgency of the situation. A physician is required to respect the patient's autonomy while also balancing between beneficence and non-maleficence. The answer choice where the physician asks the patient if it would be ok to perform the exam with the husband present is an attempt to respect the conservative religious belief of the patient (not being exposed or alone with another man in the absence of her husband) while also allowing the physician to provide necessary medical treatment that could be life saving for her and or the child. Again, this allows for the patient to practice autonomy as she has the right to say no. +5  
sahusema  I showed this question to my parents and they said "this is the kind of stuff you study all day?" smh +6  
sherry  I totally agree this is a garbage question. I personally think there is more garbage question on new NBME forms than the previous ones...they can argue in any way. I feel like they were just trying to make people struggle on bad options when everybody knows what they were trying to ask. +  
niboonsh  This question is a3othobillah +1  
sunshinesweetheart  this question is really not that garbage....actually easy points I was grateful for... yall are just clearly ignorant about Islam. educate yourselves, brethren, just as this exam is trying to get you to do. but yeah I agree there should be an option for female physician lol +  
drmohandes  I think this NBME24 is a waste of $60. On one hand we have these types of questions, that have 0 connection to our week-month-year-long studying. On the other hand we have "Synaptobrevin" instead of SNARE, because f*ck coming up with good questions. +  


Why is it not ovarian follicle cells? I thought the female analog of Sertoli and Leydig is theca/granulosa cells.

colonelred_  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen. +3  
brethren_md  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +2  
sympathetikey  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +2  
s1q3t3  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +2  
masonkingcobra  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +1  
mcl  Wait, but did anyone mention that females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen??? +11  
mcl  But seriously though, pathology outlines says sertoli-leydig tumor "may be suspected clinically in a young patient presenting with a combination of virilization, elevated testosterone levels and ovarian / pelvic mass on imaging studies." As for follicle cell tumors, granulosa cell tumors usually occur in adults and would cause elevated levels of estrogens. Theca cell tumor would also primarily produce estrogens. Putting the links at the end since idk if they're gonna turn out right lol Link pathology outlines for sertoli leydig granulosa cell tumor theca cell tumor +6  
bigjimbo  LOL +  
fallenistand  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen. +3  
medpsychosis  So after doing some intense research, UPtoDate, PubMed, an intense literature review on the topic I have come to the final conclusion that...... ...... ...... ...... Wait for it.... ..... ..... Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen. +4  
charcot_bouchard  Hello, i just want to add that Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +1  
giggidy  Hold up, so I'm confused - I read all the posts above but I still am unsure - are sertoli-leydig cells notorious for producing androgen? +1  
subclaviansteele  Hold the phone.....Females can get sertoli leydig cell tumors which are notorious for producing androgen? TIL TL;DR - Females can get sertoli leydig cell tumors = high androgens +  
cinnapie  I just found a recent study on PubMed saying "Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen" +1  
youssefa  Hahahahaha ya'll just bored +2  
water  Bored? you wouldn't think so if you knew that females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +1  
nbmehelp  I dont get it +  
redvelvet  how don't you get it that females can get Sertoli Leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen? +  
drmomo  what if this means..... females can get Sertoli Leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +  
sunshinesweetheart  hahahaha this made my day #futurephysicians #lowkeyidiots +  
sunshinesweetheart  @medstruggle look up placental aromatase deficiency (p. 625 FA 2019), it would have a different presentation +  
deathbystep1  i am sure i would ace STEP 1 if i only knew that females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen +1  
noplanb  Wait... I might actually never forget this now lol +  
drmohandes  Females can get sertoli-leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgen. +1  
lilmonkey  Don't forget that females can get Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, which are notorious for producing lots of androgens! You're welcome! +  


Functional parathyroid adenomas can cause elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), which results in hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Hypercalcemia is characterized by the rhyming symptoms: stones (renal, biliary), bones (including bone pain to osteitis fibrosa cystica), groans (abdominal pain, n/v), thrones (polyuria, constipation), and psychiatric overtones (from depression to coma).

drmohandes  Great explanation, thanks. Does anyone know why this patient is anemic though? Is there some link between hyperparathyroidism and anemia I am missing? +  
drmohandes  *Patient erythryocytes = 3million/mm3 (normal 3.5 - 5.5) +  


Functional parathyroid adenomas can cause elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), which results in hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Hypercalcemia is characterized by the rhyming symptoms: stones (renal, biliary), bones (including bone pain to osteitis fibrosa cystica), groans (abdominal pain, n/v), thrones (polyuria, constipation), and psychiatric overtones (from depression to coma).

drmohandes  Great explanation, thanks. Does anyone know why this patient is anemic though? Is there some link between hyperparathyroidism and anemia I am missing? +  
drmohandes  *Patient erythryocytes = 3million/mm3 (normal 3.5 - 5.5) +  


submitted by seagull(467),

If you don't know what Dicumarol does like any normal human. The focus on what aspirin doesn't do, namely it's doesn't affect PT time and most pills don't increase clotting (especially with aspirin). This is how I logic to the right answer.

usmleuser007  If that's then thinking, then how would you differentiate between PT & PTT? +2  
ls3076  Why isn't "Decreased platelet count" correct? Aspirin does not decrease the platelet count, only inactivates platelets. +  
drmohandes  Because dicumarol does not decrease platelet count either. +  
krewfoo99  @usmleuser007 Because the answer choice says decrease in PTT. If you take a heparin like drug then the PTT will increase. Drugs wont increase PTT (that would be procoagulant) +  


submitted by armymed88(17),

emphysema leads to CO2 trapping leading to increase paCO2 in the blood, which gives you a respiratory acidosis Proper renal compensation will increase bicard reabs and decrease excretion- giving you increased bicarb in the blood

meningitis  Increased blood HCO3 could have easily been interpreted as increased blood pH aswell. FOllowing your explanation, since the pt had acidosis, the increased HCO3 will just make it a normal pH. Another way to think of the question is: if there is decreased exhalation due to COPD --> increased CO2 --> increased CO2 transported in blood by entering the RBC's with Carbonic Anhydrase and HCO3 is released into blood stream. So increased CO2 -> increased HCO3 seeing as this type of CO2 transport is 70% of total CO2 content in blood. +8  
drmohandes  I thought you could never fully compensate, so your pH will never normalize. Primary problem = respiratory acidosis → pH low. Compensatory metabolic alkalosis will increase blood HCO3-, but not enough to normalize pH, it will just be 'less' low, but still an acidosis. +