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submitted by keycompany(311),
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iriyepoHntevntal ecdaerse a.2COP naerltC orerceopemhtcs rsodepn ot lwo a2PCO yb gvotisascnirncto elcrearb ldboo v.esless

A) tlArreai lodBo yeOxng aiCrcnontteon: Boold Oxngye rcnnCitetaoon si dlyirect rdtelea ot bH oocaincertnnt dna ntaiuarost a2SO)( 21AF90, p. 356. aiV het Bhor cEtffe, deceserda O2PaC lwil enacsier 2Sa,O usth srinniagce dolob xyegon one.ontanrccit

B) alirAret loodB OP2: aP2O cesgnha ni esneposr ot ecdedsera ,OA2P O2,PI or ufiiso.ndf Tehre oudlw be no ahnceg ni OP2a undrgi teyoevtiirhannlp .io(t)llrhaeeytc

)C tiAlera suresPer: sreDaeedc OPC2a is tioascedsa iwth ro,sscovncnittaoi ihwch oulwd naesreci olobd .rsepruse

)E aCeblrer essiuT Hp udolw acrseine edu ot rrespotairy skal.lioas

keycompany  EDIT: Via the **Haldane Effect**, not the Bohr Effect. +  
impostersyndromel1000  excellent response +  
teepot123  fa 19 pg 489 +  


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Paesel nac you idlnyk haser NBME 22 adn 32 Qentuisos thiw me . I lyon ese eth enwrsas tbu I od ton avhe teh flul thnn?oa Tisuqkse ni eandvac

makinallkindzofgainz  I think you may have this website confused with nbmequestions.com +7  
teepot123  why don't u buy the exams like the rest of us? +2  


submitted by chosened(2),
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torreCc em if I m wrgon ubt I nitkh its' gyralnale papsm.talooisli spPlialmao nac edvpleo whryenea lgnoa teh teyparrsori rtt,ac ubt mots tefon acetff hte yxarnl dan het olcva dosrc y(aneargll toNalst)sloppi.oai m resu who YH htis si btu rehse Meor nfoi: lhro/aapimsssii.onerctasrps-atgootrreyer/rrdulsaitaee/rs-ps/tseiaepe/desr-:r

hyperfukus  yes you are definitely correct i think its a common wtf q that pops up bc there's one on uworld that asks if its true or false vocal cords and i had to hunt my prof down to figure it out... +2  
hyperfukus  also i think they love anything that compromises the airway +  
winelover777  Shout out to Pathoma, Respiratory chapter, Larynx section, Laryngeal Papilloma heading. Only reason I got this question right. +1  
teepot123  yep dr sattar nails it ^ +  


submitted by seagull(1582),
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fI oyu n'tod onkw wtha aimDorulc soed ilke nay nralmo .nauhm heT cfuso on thwa piisran 'tnsdoe do, lynaem s'ti notdse' ecffat TP tmie and tsom illps tdno' scaeeirn tgtilcno lcip(layees thiw )apiisn.r sTih is who I loigc ot het hgtri re.nasw

usmleuser007  If that's then thinking, then how would you differentiate between PT & PTT? +25  
ls3076  Why isn't "Decreased platelet count" correct? Aspirin does not decrease the platelet count, only inactivates platelets. +4  
drmohandes  Because dicumarol does not decrease platelet count either. +  
krewfoo99  @usmleuser007 Because the answer choice says decrease in PTT. If you take a heparin like drug then the PTT will increase. Drugs wont increase PTT (that would be procoagulant) +3  
pg32  I think usmleuser007 and is3076 were working form the perspective of not knowing what dicumerol was. If you were unsure what dicumarol was, there really wasn't a way to get this correct, contrary to @seagull's comment. You can't really rule out any of these as possible options because aspirin doesn't do any of them. +4  
snripper  yeah, it wouldn't work. We'll need to know with Dicumarol is. +4  
jackie_chan  Not true, the logic works. You gotta know what aspirin does at least, it interferes with COX1 irreversibly and inhibits platelet aggregation (kinda like an induced Glanzzman), all it does. PT, aPTT are functions of the coagulation cascade and the test itself is not an assessment of platelet function. Bleeding time/clotting time is an assessment of platelet function. A- decreased plasma fibrinogen concentration- not impacted B- decreased aPTT/partial- DECREASED, indicates you are hypercoaguable, not the case C- decreased platelet count- aspirin does not destroy platelets D- normal clotting time- no we established aspirin impacts clotting/bleeding time by preventing aggregation E- prolonged PT- answer, aspirin does not impact the coagulation factor cascades in the test +3  
teepot123  di'coumarin'ol +  


submitted by armymed88(47),
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scGeluo is rosecdtranotp- otin eyntecesrot of IS via imsodu

toxoplasmabartonella  That makes that glucose needs to be given with sodium. But, what about bicarb? Isn't the patient losing lots of bicarb from diarrhea? +3  
pg32  Had the same debate. I knew glucose/sodium was the textbook answer for rehydration but also was wondering if we just ignore the bicarb loss in diarrhea...? +4  
makinallkindzofgainz  @pg32 - Sure, they are losing bicarb in the diarrhea, and yes this can effect pH, but it doesn't matter that much. You're not going to replace the bicarb for simple diarrhea in a stable, but hydrated previously healthy 12 year old. You're gonna give him some oral rehydration with a glucose/sodium-containing beverage. Don't overthink the question :) +2  
makinallkindzofgainz  *dehydrated +  
teepot123  salt and sugar, that's all the kid needs when ill simple +1  
mtkilimanjaro  Hm I put bicarb/K+ since thats lost in diarrhea, but I think the key thing in this Q is that its only 6 hours of acute diarrhea and nothing else. You would prob give bicarb and K+ in more "chronic" diarrhea over a few days or longer not just a few hours +1  


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ehT mtsicruiold rnsineerfgp apahl xnoti is a lhetsaicnei hichw vsaelec tinhelci to lroonpchsolhheipy nad g.dielyecrid styla,Esniel ahlpa nxoti mmiisc sppoahlioepsh C. iTsh emnsa ti ahs a yvealgu iisamlr eefftc fo the sipolpeosapshh nees in licsualB eueCsr adn teiiaLrs oeesgtonM.yonc hTe end ltuers fo het otxin ancotaivit is aitaciotvn of odsenc ensegrmes tsemssy orthugh erdiilegcyd KA(A le)dgilalyc,rcoy which taecisatv asevelr ,hayswtpa somt ynltoba in hist sace Acricnoihda iadc lmibsotmae dna 8,L-I tihw teh ent cftfee of sraiceden clsuavar trlapeeiybim ailgedn to eem.da

teepot123  fa 19 pg 138 +1  
faus305  alpha-toxin is also known as lecithinase. I got this right because I remembered the sketchy. That being said, can someone explain how this possibly received a "13.1 difficulty score?" It does not seem like that easy of a question. +  


submitted by tissue creep(114),
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giLitfn deah liwhe neor:p 1 aSlomiotnh c slm:ei 2 stnognoChi :mo 2 ntsmho

pg32  Where do you guys learn that cooing starts at 2 months? It isn't in first aid or boards and beyond so this was an annoying question for me +1  
drschmoctor  @pg32 From being a parent! Otherwise little chance I'd remember all these milestones. +4  
drzed  I'll get right on that @drshmoctor :). If only I could have a kid to memorize all these damn developmental milestones. That would make life easier haha. +6  
snripper  Yeah, I don't see cooing anywhere. +  
teepot123  thankfully a lot of my friends on insta keep posting pics/vids of their babies reaching milestones so im well updated lol +1  
pjpeleven  Mnemonic: "Coo at Two" +1  


submitted by trump2020(7),

You guys are way overthinking this. Chronic hypoxia causes hypertension due to SNS activation and EPO production.

teepot123  yep +  


submitted by hayayah(1081),
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olhtuhAg hafl hsete rhesoonm nac yaucltla laos eb teerdesc ormf teh moud,edun teh uumdoedn is csoesiaatd eht sotm wtih CCK relsaee.

didelphus  Gastrin, intrinsic factor, and pepsin are secreted by the stomach. VIP is synthesized in neurons, so CCK (from I cells of duodenum) would be most directly affected by a duodenectomy. +22  
teepot123  fa 19 pg 365 +  


submitted by pparalpha(85),
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oihinnibti of robuuimtcel mriyooniteazlp → nhisiitbi passoctihogy fo uaret tycalsr,s tlyceokeu tinatiavco nda marig,iton adn lelc ostm.axiech

teepot123  fa 19 pg 476 +  


submitted by ihavenolife(68),
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dIk if ti peslh btu I gto it gsinu hte otH TB-eno KstAE mcneionm

otH >- IL 1 Fv)(ree

T ecll uilmantitos t&-;g LI 2

eoBn awormr aintouimlts ;&-gt LI 3

gIE &t;g- LI 4

IgA t-;g& IL 5

aKeut ehaps rtoeipn ;&-tg LI 6

temmy  cyclosporine inhibits transcription of IL2 +14  
mysticsoul  FA2018 Pg 120 +3  
teepot123  same page also for 2019 edition^ +  


submitted by haliburton(215),
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AF 012:7 eerScet ncuaasftrt fomr llearlma ebd.soi lo As esevr as cerprosrsu ot eypt I llsce dna orhet tpey II sllc.e tlfoiePrear irndug lgnu agame.d

teepot123  fa 19 pg 647 +  
moms  thanks! +  


submitted by tinydoc(233),
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copNuehiart niaP raeft etkosr is traenlc otPs terkso ainp rSmenydo

uacdse by orlatterlcnaa hamlicta inessol

g.P 405 A91F

chandlerbas  agreed! more specifically damage to the VPL +6  
docshrek  Pg. 403 FA 19. +  
baja_blast  Both commenters above got the page wrong; it's FA 2019 p. 503. +4  
teepot123  looooool ^ what were the odd of both being wrong +  
mumenrider4ever  Pg. 515 FA 2020 +  
bbr  503 in 2019 Interesting that its seen in 10% of strokes. Starts with allodynia ---> neuropathic pain. +  


submitted by hungrybox(1051),
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apyslicDst vein aer a urreocrsp to mae.namol Tyeh ehav aruglrr,ei "dis"pycstal rbe.osdr eeRermmb teh ""B in DBCA sdants for eglurarri eBrd.sor Nuesv seman omle.

rthOe wnsra:es

  • asoichsatn inrigsanc - egnrankDi fo nksi dissaactoe tiwh yTpe II bisadete tiluemls

  • albas lelc micocarna fo iksn - Rlaer,y fi ever atztsmea.ssie mCoonyml etffacs upepr .ilp

  • elbu vusen - luoBd-elcoer yept of ncommo e.oml ignn.eB

  • nmpeetgdi hreorbeics aeistokrs - kuStc" o"n .arenappeac sloMty bni.egn estAfcf oldre ole.epp

  • etNo( - ouy sauulyl see noly eno. fI ulmeiltp orseihrecb trsoseeak era eesn, it sicndieat a IG cyaamgnlin - aak Ll"séTreate-r i)ngs
usmleuser007  correction ~ BCC affects the lower lip more than the upper +1  
sympathetikey  Pathoma says upper lip, good sir +26  
hungrybox  Yeah basal cell carcinoma actually affects the upper lip. Counterintuitive because it's "basal" which seems to go along with the lower lip. Here's another source (this website is fucking gold btw): https://step1.medbullets.com/oncology/121593/basal-cell-carcinoma-of-the-skin +5  
pg32  Can anyone explain how we can rule out C or E purely based on the question stem? If we read into the question that we are looking for something related to melanoma, then I get why we can rule out C and E. However, the question simply asks which lesion appears on both sun-exposed and nonsun-exposed areas of the patient's skin. I would say that C, D and E can all occur in that distribution pattern. +6  
paperbackwriter  @pg32 because it specifies "this patient's skin," and the only ones he is more likely to get than the average person because of his family history are dysplastic nevi +2  
teepot123  fa 19 pg 473 +  
rockodude  just remember BS. basal cell upper, squamous cell lower +  


submitted by usmleuser007(397),
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SCN /eHomgarehr a)daem g1 82-41 rsH = erd 2s)ueronn -31 sady = usrlipnehto aitvqfeielc(u sine)r)ocs 3 -35 = hmgoraaecps )oirc il4(ga)m -12 kwese = Rtcaeive ssiiglo (+ usrlacva fe)onpiti)ra5rlo eorm tnah 2 kesew = lailG csra

no:t(e hte enhpogseatis is aiilmrs to MI adn tis rsca oroaifnmt; e,wrvheo eht teim crseuo rfo NCS si just ate)srf

teepot123  fa 19 pg 500 +  
icedcoffeeislyfe  FA2020 pg 512 +  


submitted by hungrybox(1051),
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rsWcirffoa-oKnkeek oyndesmr due ot hmietina B)(1 e.diyfencci noomCm in cloaisc.ohl

eTh arenos hwy ehty sadi "strsule of acoholl nda grud esernc era tia"egnev is ttha het denfaertflii eusildnc atcue coollha aio.oitxincnt

'enrWescki i:dtra

  • oonsnfiuc
  • larysapis of eey celsmus lp)(tamhelp*ohaiog
  • iaatax

*ssnrpeet heer sa agtyssumn

'sskKaoffor h:syiscpso

  • meromy slso odgaetanr(re dna dago)ertrre
  • mikgna ihst up ftc)(lbnoioaaun
  • oynlareptsi nhegca
teepot123  fa 19 pg 559 +1  


submitted by mcl(601),
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biroiV ceoerahl si a ee,tni-rmggava ommca aesdph itbecaar that acn ucesa eyrtaw ehda.rair Ceolhra ntixo foicnsntu by iingatvcat het Gs nptiores -;-&tg gsanreniic yiivactt fo lyldaeyn clsayce t;-&-g sedeaicnr MPAc g;-&-t densreaic +aN dan -Cl flxuef g&;--t ear.drhia

teepot123  fa 19 pg 146 +  
lovebug  Cholerae's exotoxin does not invade mucosa. but just permanently activates Gs according to FA. +  
lovebug  Same mechanism[Increase cAMP] : 1) Labile toxin of ETEC, 2) Edema factor of B. anthracis, 3) Pertussis toxin of B. pertusssis +1  


submitted by nerdy nik(9),
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VTD atth wnet to het irnb.a If it owldu haev eogn to teh pluaonrym yatrre hes dwolu haev a PE, btu it dcorses eth tiraa lalw avi a tpetan feramon evalo and ntew ldctiyer to eth .nirab

cienfuegos  Some more UW info: incomplete fusion in up to 25% of adults: remain functionally closed until RA > LA pressure (e.g. valsalva), esp. concerning if hypercoagulable (e.g. OCP) -evaluate cryptogenic stroke with buble study: inj agitated nl saline and look for bubbles in left heart +2  
athenathefirst  Are you very sure of this answer? because she is an adult and not a baby anymore so it can't be a patent foramen ovale. +  
teepot123  has not closed basically +  
kevin  cienfuegos is spot on with his explanation @athenathefirst +  


submitted by hayayah(1081),
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eth tmoyiraj of orcbna xiediod usmleceol aer ecdirra as trpa fo hte brctiaebona eubffr .meysst In isth ,ssetym crbnoa diiodex ueifsdsf onti eth C.RBs ncCarbio hdnraayse C(A) hnwiit RBsC uqkcliy tneoscrv eht rcnboa edxiido onti rbancico iacd )32(OCH. nCricboa aidc is an nluetsab itmeienadter uleclmeo htat amelydeimti ssidetiscoa onti corbtnaieab snoi -3)OC(H dna noyhgder (H+) nois.

eTh nwyle esnyzhtsdie tbeabcnrioa noi is trprsnetdoa tuo of hte RCB oitn eht spaaml in hxgnecea ofr a hidclroe nio );−C(l shti si alldec eth elrdciho ts.hif nheW hte oodlb reaesch hte nlus,g eht nreiabotabc ion si stretrdnapo cabk inot hte BRC ni egncaxhe orf hte codiherl ino. heT +H ion oisssictdea morf eth monehblgoi dna isbdn to eht rtnbibceoaa i.on iThs oecudpsr eht robnacci dcai mar,detteeiin hcwih is odnvecter kacb toin orbcan ixieddo ohugrht eht zaeictmyn icnoat fo .AC ehT ncoabr oixedid edocpdru is xledeelp tguorhh the ulsng rngdui oiatlahnex.

hungrybox  Amazing explanation. Thank you!! +2  
namira  in case anyone wants to visualize things... https://o.quizlet.com/V6hf-2fgWeaWYu1u23fryQ.png +5  
ergogenic22  CO2 is carried in the blood is bound to hemoglobin, known as carbaminohemoglobin (HbCO2) (5%), dissolved CO2 (5%), bicarb is 90% +3  
pg32  Nice explanation, but can anyone clarify how we know from the question that we are measuring HCO3 rather than dissolved CO2? +3  
qball  @pg32 This question is asking about what accounts for the LARGER amount of co2 and the HCO3 buffer is about 85% of this transport and dissolved C02 is about 5-7%. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-biology2/chapter/transport-of-carbon-dioxide-in-the-blood/ +3  
teepot123  fa 19 pg 656 +1  
surfergirl  "majority of blood CO2 is carried as HCO3- in the plasma." I guess that is all they're testing us on, just in a very convoluted way. +  


submitted by beeip(124),
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I ighmt eb eth noyl ernspo on ehrat who ogt tshi one wro,gn but redsl:agsre

IT"T ilassnay ceusndil verey uetbcjs how si onaddreimz ocrnadcig to erdndzmoai enttreatm iasetsmnng. It rigeons monpeocincna,l oolpotrc aeostidiv,n iawt,rwldha nad ynnagiht ttah nepasph efatr dit"ozanmnr.ioa[]1

yo  You're not. I also goofed. +20  
seagull  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kps3VzbykFQ This video is a pretty decent explination worth your time on the subject. +2  
hungrybox  I got it right but I was only like 50% sure. So I appreciate it. +  
drdoom  ^ linkifying @seagull: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kps3VzbykFQ +2  
teepot123  ^ same video above used when I analysed my form 20 q which I got incorrect at time, its very clear at explaining this, helping me get it correct on this form +  


submitted by mcl(601),
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atePnit yma eahv ryeedtarih imdeag,naeo hcwih is icsatesado twih reru"crten ckatsta fo ,seennti ess,ivam ocdlzaeil csouuuebanst eemad vinglonvi eth itsim,eeexrt teig,lania ,acfe ro krunt, ro oulmssaubc medea fo uperp rywaia or b.elwos" ehT italrec sgoe no ot yas es"t1ras-eeC iriinohtb okrws rtdieycl no eth eoltmcmenp and ttccnoa lamaps eadscasc ot ruedce ibynainkdr aeselre" whchi is oasl bapybrlo oogd ot .nwko

cbswcni..p8am/:li/Mos//nteP/.661C/hwlpm.v6wrtgci3nh3t

notadoctor  Thought this was a trick question as C1 esterase deficiency also results in a decrease in C4. However, the second answer choice was not referring to C4 but to C4 binding protein, which I now know is different. I also didn't realize C1 esterase was technically a complement protein. +4  
youssefa  Based on many sources hereditary angioedema does NOT cause a rash (urticaria) which is a main differentiating point between angioedema and allergy. This mislead me in this question. Any clarification? +22  
ergogenic22  +1 on the above because uptodate states that c1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, both acquired and nonhereditary, are both non-urticarial, non-pruritic, and that is confirmed by the above linked article +2  
sahusema  Question writer probably didn't know the difference between cutaneous urticaria and subcutaneous edema. +3  
almondbreeze  same. got it wrong bc the pt didn't have sx of hereditary angioedema - swollen lips and eyelids +2  
teepot123  fa 19 pg 107 +  
beloved_bet  According to Amboss "Mast cell-mediated angioedema Often associated with urticaria and pruritus Other associated with clinical findings of allergic reactions (see type 1 hypersensitivity reaction) Presents within 30 minutes to 2 hours after exposure and resolves over hours to days" +1  


submitted by soph(62),
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all teh troeh niosopt pt wduol hvae resut,u ve.sorai rsturne yeth tndwoul olko orlnam and htye uowld heva ahrcipot vos.eira

turtlepenlight  This makes sense, but I was thrown off by the "normal-appearing" b/c wouldn't AIS pts not have pubic hair? +  
drzed  They just say it's a normal appearing 17 year old girl; not that the external genitalia are normal appearing. +1  
teepot123  fa 19 pg 625 +  


submitted by neonem(572),
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RPR = cngeensir etts ofr iihsylsp. siTh is a vc-geigksnootl npetrat a,rhs eccasihrtacitr fo redyascon sihlyp.is Dgur fo eiochc for iiyssplh at nay agste si uutsrrcnialma n.Pneliliic

ragacha  PAG 147 FA 2018 +  
teepot123  also says which antibiotic, only 2 in the list, helps narrow down, pen more commonly used +2  


submitted by hungrybox(1051),
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hwen dffi inlges drasnt eprrai smimechsan rae :used

  • epiarr ylwen nidtyeszshe n:srdta mthcmais apreri nchyL( reonm)yds
  • rpiear mpediyniri emrdis uasdce yb atd VU xsuepoe:r iecdteonul snoiexic reriap Xedeormra( ipntogus)mem
  • rerapi ns/nuiooexaspottc l:ratoneait bsae xiosncei rarepi
meningitis  Brca: recombinant repair +  
brotherimodu  P.40 FA2019 lists the different DNA repair mechanisms +2  
teepot123  fa '19 pg 382/3 +  


submitted by usmle11a(77),
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FIN y will nbtiihi airitontfeidenf fo T2h elcsl adn rereftohe e,a( )on)r gbw agutlreyro T llds) ce fi eth seca swa kntiagl botua iusrv

teepot123  fa 19 pg 108 +  


submitted by aesalmon(84),
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naC eynnao iplaenx why itsh is ton a iurtyatpi m?daoean Is it utjs a ckal fo threo momyt?pss

benzjonez  I think that they just wanted you to notice the **calcifications**. Per FA, "calcifications are common in craniopharyngiomas," whereas I don't think you'd expect to see calcifications in a prolactinoma. +21  
epr94  also the option is prolactinoma not broad pituitary calcifications and he doesnt show any specific signs of high prolactin +  
madojo  It says hes coming in for constituional delay in growth and puberty, i took this to mean that he had low LH, FSH due to decreased GnRH from the prolactinoma. Why did they have to say low-normal serum gonadotropin, why not just say normal? fck u nbme +1  
madojo  It says hes coming in for constituional delay in growth and puberty, i took this to mean that he had low LH, FSH due to decreased GnRH from the prolactinoma. Why did they have to say low-normal serum gonadotropin, why not just say normal? fck u nbme +1  
ac3  @madojo I believe since suprasellar tumors can cause a mass effect on pituitary gland to decrease gonadotropin levels. Where as prolactinoma causes a rise in prolactin which downregulates gonadotropin secretion. Please correct me if I'm wrong +1  
teepot123  fa '19 pg 516 +  


submitted by egghead(1),
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hTsi si neo of tshoe siosuetqn I saw nrvee gonig to .teg Ist' ont ni ,AF I nodt' ktinh ev'I seen ti ni cs.asl

hungrybox  same :( +  
masonkingcobra  My issue was the stem said no skin damage (I would think pulling out your hair damages your scalp) [Turns out it does not](http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1529-8019.2008.00165.x) +  
gh889  FA 2019, pg 551 +8  
meningitis  Compulsively pulling out one’s own hair. Causes significant distress and persists despite attempts to stop. Presents with areas of thinning hair or baldness on any area of the body, most commonly the scalp. Incidence highest in childhood but spans all ages. Treatment: psychotherapy is first line; medications (eg, clomipramine) may be considered. +14  
step1soon  FA 2019 pg 551 +1  
teepot123  damn its in FA and Ive never ocne read it XO +  


submitted by strugglebus(165),
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Cycploonisre is a uclcnaienir i,ohnibtri hhiwc saim to draeesec L2I-

teepot123  fa 2019 pg 120 +3  


submitted by killme(13),
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ttiIonnen ot tTrae aAlsisyn

usmleuser007  in a per-protocol analysis,[6] only patients who complete the entire clinical trial according to the protocol are counted towards the final results +1  
sympathetikey  "In an ITT population, none of the patients are excluded and the patients are analyzed according to the randomization scheme." +7  
smc213  This video helps https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kps3VzbykFQ +13  
rio19111  Thx smc213, really helped. +1  
trainingrats  Where is this in FA2019? +  
teepot123  the video explains it well, no need for fa +  


submitted by chillqd(39),
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tiPsntae hwti ufgmeani /22 to ndCdaai aaicsbnl suolhd eercvie nad cdEcinishnoan naigafltnu tgnea disa rcpietac uelgsideni

ncaihdoiscnnE iibnthi teh yienthsss of beat g,n3u),(a-D-c1l na seeslatni npncmoote of the clle wlal of upisecltesb lriuelpsAsg espcesi dan ndidCaa esspeci

ofnpCungias kPaecga stIenr

teepot123  fa 2019 pg 200 +1