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NBME 23 Answers

nbme23/Block 2/Question#16 (70.4 difficulty score)
Which of the following best explains impaired ...
Increase in axonal capacitance🔍,📺
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 +8 
submitted by mcl(618),
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nI case oyu nwaan go psreu nder adn aedr uobta yienml, eaactnc,ciap adn trs,caseine this gyu dose a dgoo ojb.

nwinkelmann  This really helped me, at least the pictures did. Here's my interpretation of the pictures in not super scientific terms: capacitance is like the "capaciy" to keep ions close to the membrane. Myelin puts a barrier between the ions in the conductive environment (ECF or ICF) and the nerve membrane. The higher the capacitance, the closer the ions are to the membrane, so it's like the charge effect is "more potent" so harder to change the membrane potentia, whereas if the ions are farther from the membrane, the charge effect is "less potent" so easier to change the membrane potential and thus easier to depolarize. Thus, with myelin, there is decreased capacity of the ions to be close to the membrane, so in demyelinating conditions, the ions can be really close to the membrane, i.e. higher capacitance. +24  
sweetmed  this helped a lot! +  
roaaaj  Well explained! +  
euchromatin69  or see u world 917 same concept +1  
brise  Uworld 1318*** +3  

 +4 
submitted by visualninjacontender(17),
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eim-t ntcsano=t sRiatences x Ccetaanpaic -oer wl time ttoscnna = tsreaf ncidoncotu ym-nl ei erwslo aacccpeaitn - ryebeth lowneirg ietm nctontsa adn nsirecaing iuotoncdnc peeds rl(weo cptyaiac for nrenou ot hodl racgeh yma oawll hte archeg ot "puj"m mrfo edon ot dneo - I may eb gkiman atth stla tpar up tub htat is how I srnddueatn i)t




 +2 
submitted by sympathetikey(1440),
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rcSo:ue kpigeM:i.//tnyk.iitdeiwwsrpnaile//ho

"ieymln deepss eht sasrtinnsmio of citcaelerl ipuesmsl laldce nctoai opetlasitn olnga ealdmyenti sonxa by iantiusngl eth nxoa nad cdneigur lnoxaa aemrbmne anpatccieca"

littletreetrunk  I think this makes total sense, but how does it not ALSO stop fast axonal transport? +4  
laminin  axonal transport is transport of organelles bidirectionally along the axon in the cytoplasm since myelin is on the outside of the axon demyelination doesn't affect this process. source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axonal_transport "Axonal transport, also called axoplasmic transport or axoplasmic flow, is a cellular process responsible for movement of mitochondria, lipids, synaptic vesicles, proteins, and other cell parts to and from a neuron's cell body, through the cytoplasm of its axon." +4  
yotsubato  axonal transport is mediated by kinesin and dynein. Microtubule toxins like vincristine block these +3  
drdoom  @littletreetrunk "axonal transport" is movement of bulk goods via microtubules (which run from soma to terminus); ions, on the other hand, move in an "electrical wave" that we call an action potential! no axonal (microtubular) transport required! in other words, de-myelination will have no effect on the transport of bulk goods; but it will really mess up how fast "electrical waves" traverse the neuron! +  

Do not confuse AXONAL TRANSPORT with ACTION POTENTIALS.

AXONAL TRANSPORT. The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body).

https://meshb.nlm.nih.gov/record/ui?ui=D001370

+7/- drdoom(958),


 +1 
submitted by hello36654(5),
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os hwy si icsaotnes" of afst aloxna pa"nrstrot rg?onw tonD' ntlaemidey ,xaosn by otndiinef,i ahve stfa dn?aecutoncc So detinleadmye oasnx udwlo heva staic"sneo fo staf aaxlon trp,t"arson chhiw si eht erwsan A, gh?rti

diabetes  i think it slows down ,no cessation . +  
gdupgrant  Because fast axonal transport refers to the transport of vesicles containing neurotransmitters or some kind of cell product up and down microtubules in the axon. It isn't related to actual electrical signal transduction. +8