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 -1  (nbme18#3)

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/cns.12468

pg.4 of the manuscript, bottom right paragraph

visualninjacontender  "As we know that all mAChR subtypes are expressed in the brain, while only M1, M2, and M5 exist in vestibular ganglia and vestibular end organs in humans [72]. The M1, M3, and M5 are postsynaptic excitatory receptors; M2 and M4 receptors are inhibitory. Furthermore, selective M3 and M5 antagonist zamifenacin was found to be as effective as scopolamine in preventing Motion Sickness. These lines of evidence suggest that scopolamine might exert its antagonistic effect on peripheral M1 and M5 and/or central M1 and M3 mAChR to prevent MS"

 +1  (nbme23#42)

It could be that this is a fixed upper airway obstruction, which would prevent inflation and deflation of the airways due to the tumor clamping down on the trachea.


 +4  (nbme23#16)

-time constant= Resistance x Capacitance -lower time constant = faster conduction -myelin lowers capacitance - thereby lowering time constant and increasing conduction speed (lower capacity for neuron to hold charge may allow the charge to "jump" from node to node - I may be making that last part up but that is how I understand it)


 +3  (nbme23#26)

Pathologically characterized by: loss of internal elastic lamina. which can lead to the formation of anuerysms due to weakening of the wall


 +1  (nbme21#9)

the infarct occurred 16 hrs ago, from 12-24hrs after the infarct there will be Red Neurons.

tsl19  FA 2018 - p. 496: ischemia -> pyknosis within 12-24 hours.
d_holles  yeah the infarct occurring 16 hr ago is key. i zoomed in only on the died 1 hr later

 +2  (nbme21#2)

Pulmonary fibrosis will involve granulation tissue (as it is fibrosis). Granulation tissue includes myofibroblasts, which will "pull" on the airways, thereby increasing radial traction.

sahusema  The fibrosis causes contraction, the airways are pulled open giving less resistance to airflow

 +3  (nbme21#43)

Irrerugularly Irregular rhythm = Afib Afib --> stasis of blood in the Heart ---> Thrombus formation Thrombus will embolize to the (likely) the popliteal artery leading to acute limb ischemia

194orbust  why would an embolectomy be favored over clopidogrel?
194orbust  oh nvm......it's bc clopidogrel won't bust a clot, just prevents them from forming.
chandlerbas  also the way i see it is the hommie has so much pain as indicated by "sudden onset of severe pain" so you want something fast and effective. surgery time! grab my scalpel! drugs could be indicated but arent an option even then heparin takes 20 to 60 minutes to work so




Subcomments ...

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/cns.12468

pg.4 of the manuscript, bottom right paragraph

visualninjacontender  "As we know that all mAChR subtypes are expressed in the brain, while only M1, M2, and M5 exist in vestibular ganglia and vestibular end organs in humans [72]. The M1, M3, and M5 are postsynaptic excitatory receptors; M2 and M4 receptors are inhibitory. Furthermore, selective M3 and M5 antagonist zamifenacin was found to be as effective as scopolamine in preventing Motion Sickness. These lines of evidence suggest that scopolamine might exert its antagonistic effect on peripheral M1 and M5 and/or central M1 and M3 mAChR to prevent MS" +