eeorhwN eahv I bnee leab to fnid hyw the hell this si a htngi.
if you want to save your time and not read an 8 page research article like I did heres the summary
Other classes of medications that cause hyperprolactinemia include antidepressants, antihypertensive agents, and drugs that in- crease bowel motility. Hyperprolactinemia caused by medications is commonly symptomatic, causing galactorrhea, menstrual dis- turbance, and impotence.
Galnjo adh a elcreut thta menednito hatt "If a petitan has legaahrtc,roa wvreie veeyr durg e'hyert iakngt niesc yman ugrds sceau troag.ahaclr"e
ehT ynol tinhg of elsbisop cevrneale in ihst mQ-ets is ttah ehs aetks a dteionmai,c eoerrhfte het rsanwe fo "urgd c"eetff si the msot ilekly eaonrs for her taoerhcraal.g
As an 1,e 1800i:t0d pepeol dtropree to heva sedi esfefct hnew agntik ozHraoy erdhonghiAdml.coit hetm, 52 peeplo 20)0.%( ahve Bresta adersigch
Process of elimination is the only way to get this answer without Savant levels of autism, as some bowtie wearing doucher who wrote the question probably has.
Cancer is unilateral almost all the time, DM doesn't make sense for any reason, HTN itself wouldn't cause milky boobs, and mast cells degranulating doesn't make milky boobs either. So, and because many drugs can have milky boobs, you're left with drug effects by process of elimination.
" hetOr lscesas fo isimentocad that escau trpcihenilpoaearmy cueilnd raesnsta,snitpde aveetntyeinisrhp a,etngs dan grusd htta rincaese owebl moi.ytlti eaotlnmyaipierprHc sudcea by ticeaodismn is lmmonyco pic,mtamotys agsiucn garthoarl,cea runmtlase neubadr,scit dna ete.nmcoip tI si Iantopmrt to nurese ttha plrorahpeeyicatnmi ni na ivdindIual tpeniat si ued to ntidieocam and nto ot a lacsttrruu seinol ni het rtpu/ptaltmcahiyihyoai aear; sthi acn eb ehcicadolpsm yb 1)( ptogispn teh oiaitdcmen itmraylproe to ntemdeeri hhwreet ciparlton levsle rnrteu ot mrl,oan (2) iticnghsw to a teiaoidmnc htat edso tno aseuc rahepcmlipyatrneoi "
edndnsdoNee-"otnp-e side fcsftee — ghAthuol lodseo-w htpryae esesm to mmiiienz eth ltaimeboc aonmitocsplci ndeidcu by a dietzhia ro izl-ehkteiadi r,duitiec ti yma otn neescysrlia nileatime ohert ides ctfe.efs sA an xl,eempa sa myan sa 52 eceprtn fo emn edraett wthi 25 gmyad/ fo otienlhdlaohcr doelpev a eiedncl ni ualexs nntouifc .34][ eelpS rsbeunaitdcs acn slao ro,ucc ryairualplct if eht tetanpi is on a dmu-oosliw eidt 3.4 woH heset mlsproeb oucrc is ont ko.nwn"
Pathoma gives the three major causes of galactorrhea as nipple stimulation, prolactinoma of anterior pituitary, and drugs (see 16.1 - Breast Pathology). Only drug effect is an answer choice for this question.
To put another way - before you try to go through every answer choice, asking yourself "would this cause galactorrhea?" Instead, ask yourself, "What are the causes of galactorrhea?" According to Dr. Sattar, they are "nipple stimulation, prolactinoma of anterior pituitary, and drugs."
The question doesn't say anything that would point you toward nipple stimulation, like "it only seems to appear when she puts on a shirt/plays sports/runs/etc."† So you can rule out nipple stimulation.
It also makes no mention of bitemporal blindness (which would point you to an anterior pituitary tumor), so you can rule out prolactinoma. The only option left is drug effect.
†I've never seen anything like this on a question but I assume the NBME would word it in some convoluted way like that.
I initially wrote this as a subcomment, but I feel like it deserves its own comment. I was never really satisfied with any of the explanations for this problem, and I finally arrived at one that makes the most sense to me.
One more thing: Pathoma specifically says cancer is NOT a cause of galactorrhea.
So the people who are saying you can rule out cancer because it's bilateral are completely wrong. You rule out cancer because it doesn't cause galactorrhea.
Besides, breast cancer can be bilateral. Bilateral breast cancer is almost always invasive lobular carcinoma.
This is analogous to serous cystadenocarcinoma. Bilateral ovarian cancer is almost always serous cystadenocarcinoma.
Idk how this "breast cancer can't be bilateral" myth started propagating.
Thiazides reduce GFR -> Reduced clearance of prolactin -> hyperpolactinemia -> discharge.
Not sure how correct that is, but aside from cancer being unilateral, I would associate high prolactin with loss of dopamine inhibition/reduced clearance of prolactin itself.
siahizeTd cna esacu ueatc nlaireiittts ,esnrpitih a rmfo of arlne arul.ife Wutoith eth anelr tecenirxo fo ,tcrnlaipo ti anc idubl up in het seumr dna lestru ni c.ghaerrtaoal
If het tp si ntakig a iaithedz c(whhi is K igete,)dlpn ti migth eahv saol ebne ivnge ihtw a K asigrnp urgd cush as s.nproticeoianl
lnocStaoiperin ash iecroodniglcon fcesfte husc sa aiegtscaymno nda lr.actagearho
Possible causes of galactorrhea include: Medications, such as certain sedatives, antidepressants, antipsychotics and high blood pressure drugs. Opioid use. Herbal supplements, such as fennel, anise or fenugreek seed
^ from the mayo clinic.... emphasis on the HTN drugs