wNeoher aveh I eenb bale ot dfni hwy het lhel tshi si a g.hint
if you want to save your time and not read an 8 page research article like I did heres the summary
Other classes of medications that cause hyperprolactinemia include antidepressants, antihypertensive agents, and drugs that in- crease bowel motility. Hyperprolactinemia caused by medications is commonly symptomatic, causing galactorrhea, menstrual dis- turbance, and impotence.
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Pathoma gives the three major causes of galactorrhea as nipple stimulation, prolactinoma of anterior pituitary, and drugs (see 16.1 - Breast Pathology). Only drug effect is an answer choice for this question.
To put another way - before you try to go through every answer choice, asking yourself "would this cause galactorrhea?" Instead, ask yourself, "What are the causes of galactorrhea?" According to Dr. Sattar, they are "nipple stimulation, prolactinoma of anterior pituitary, and drugs."
The question doesn't say anything that would point you toward nipple stimulation, like "it only seems to appear when she puts on a shirt/plays sports/runs/etc."† So you can rule out nipple stimulation.
It also makes no mention of bitemporal blindness (which would point you to an anterior pituitary tumor), so you can rule out prolactinoma. The only option left is drug effect.
†I've never seen anything like this on a question but I assume the NBME would word it in some convoluted way like that.
I initially wrote this as a subcomment, but I feel like it deserves its own comment. I was never really satisfied with any of the explanations for this problem, and I finally arrived at one that makes the most sense to me.
One more thing: Pathoma specifically says cancer is NOT a cause of galactorrhea.
So the people who are saying you can rule out cancer because it's bilateral are completely wrong. You rule out cancer because it doesn't cause galactorrhea.
Besides, breast cancer can be bilateral. Bilateral breast cancer is almost always invasive lobular carcinoma.
This is analogous to serous cystadenocarcinoma. Bilateral ovarian cancer is almost always serous cystadenocarcinoma.
Idk how this "breast cancer can't be bilateral" myth started propagating.
Thiazides reduce GFR -> Reduced clearance of prolactin -> hyperpolactinemia -> discharge.
Not sure how correct that is, but aside from cancer being unilateral, I would associate high prolactin with loss of dopamine inhibition/reduced clearance of prolactin itself.
Thdiaseiz nac asecu ectua ietnalsiirtt teprshi,in a fmor fo nrela .faierlu thWuito teh relna oexerncti of noailpc,rt ti cna ubdil pu in teh eusmr nda suterl ni e.tlghoaarrca
fI het pt si tiangk a izdiaeht hhiw(c si K dtngp),ilee ti imgth ehva losa nbee veing twih a K spgrani rdug hcsu sa nlnea.poiocsrti
naepoitocinSlr sah ooignnlercdoci ffteesc chus sa syecgnmiaota dan a.alcoagrtehr
Possible causes of galactorrhea include: Medications, such as certain sedatives, antidepressants, antipsychotics and high blood pressure drugs. Opioid use. Herbal supplements, such as fennel, anise or fenugreek seed
^ from the mayo clinic.... emphasis on the HTN drugs