NBME 20

nbme20/Block 1/Question#42

A 60-year-old man has two-pillow orthopnea, severe ...

Jugular venous pressure of 12 mm Hg

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submitted by hayayah(216),

This patient has heart failure. Normal JVP is 6-8 mmHg.

Signs of heart failure are based on cardiac pump dysfunction, Žcongestion, and low perfusion.

Symptoms: include dyspnea, orthopnea, fatigue; signs include S3 heart sound, rales, jugular venous distention (JVD), and pitting edema.


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submitted by yotsubato(31),

Bifid carotid pulses are seen in Aortic stenosis or regurgitation

Carotid Bruit is heard with atherosclerosis of common carotid artery

Slow rising decreased volume carotid pulse is characteristic of aortic stenosis.

Cannon waves are seen in complete AV block, as right ventricle and atria contract independently.


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submitted by scpomp(1),

Cannon A waves occur when the right atrium contracts against a closed tricuspid valve. Classically seen in AV dissociation (complete heart block).