This patient has heart failure. Normal JVP is 6-8 mmHg.
Signs of heart failure are based on cardiac pump dysfunction, congestion, and low perfusion.
include dyspnea, orthopnea, fatigue; signs include S3 heart sound, rales, jugular venous distention (JVD), and pitting edema.
Bifid carotid pulses are seen in Aortic stenosis or regurgitation
Carotid Bruit is heard with atherosclerosis of common carotid artery
Slow rising decreased volume carotid pulse is characteristic of aortic stenosis.
Cannon waves are seen in complete AV block, as right ventricle and atria contract independently.
Cannon A waves occur when the right atrium contracts against a closed tricuspid valve. Classically seen in AV dissociation (complete heart block).