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I tried to use logic to answer this question (I did not know about the hexosamine pathway). Here is my attempt--this is probably wrong somewhere.
I figured that if you want to make glucosamine, you need to combine glucose + an amine group
(A) Arginine I knew was involved in donating nitrogen, but it is in the urea cycle, so I figured this was probably not the answer but it had potential. I figured that the major way this compound removes its nitrogen is through urea, though.
(B) ATP. Since F6P already has the phosphate group, I figured ATP is probably not necessary as the compound in question already has a PO4 group.
(C) Carbamoyl phosphate. I knew this was involved in both the urea cycle and nucleoside synthesis, so this was less likely. It also is the product of a NH3 and CO2 so that means that I wouldn't expect it to donate an amine group
(D) Glutamine I figured has an amine group attached to it ready for donation. I also know that transamination reactions are common with amino acids and alpha-ketoacids (e.g. alpha ketoglutarate with alanine can get you glutamate and a pyruvate via ALT) thus it made sense that an amino acid could donate an amine group.
(E) The only thing I knew about NAG was that it was used in the urea cycle as an allosteric activator of CPS, so I didn't think that it was useful as a donator of nitrogen since its function is to help aid nitrogen excretion.
So then I was stuck between A and D, but based on transamination reactions, I picked D.
you need to add an amine (nitrogen) and most biochem processes from sugar --> amine requires glutamine
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