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Welcome to kard's page.
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Comments ...

 +0  (nbme23#41)

Patients who undergo an AV node ablation are also implanted with a pacemaker to help maintain a normal heart rate. Tx. for complete Block

 +1  (nbme23#4)

Pregnant women are more susceptible to severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Hypoglycemia & severe anaemia is frequently encountered as a complication in falciparum malaria, that is usually ascribed to increased glucose use and impaired glucose production caused by the inhibition of gluconeogenesis.

 +1  (nbme22#36)

Tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants, also called cyclic antidepressants. The peripheral anticholinergic complaints of dry mouth, constipation, ocular side effects and urinary hesitancy are described and specific clinical guidelines for their effective management are provided.

So, most common reason for noncompliance with cyclic antidepressant therapy is its anticholinergic effect.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3290996 https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/in-depth/antidepressants/art-20046983

Note: Please if im mistaken, or my approach is mistaken, correct me... Thank you

 +3  (nbme22#18)

Might be this way, correct me please if my approach is mistaken. So in the Stem we have a Painful nodule, (Due to 10weeks ago Sutures) So im thinking on Suture granuloma, that forms a lesion (Painful Nodule) arround the non-absorbable suture material.

Subcomments ...

submitted by seagull(529),

A- primary motor cortex = wrong side of body (deficit of UMN on left side body)

B - Thalamus = sensory information conduit - motor deficits unlikely to originate from here

C - Pons - CNs 8,7,6,5, likely result in "locked in syndrome" or complete loss of motor function on right side + facial features.

D. Vermis - central body coordination. Damage results in ataxia

Not complete but maybe helpful..

yotsubato  C - Pons - CNs 8,7,6,5, likely result in "locked in syndrome" or complete loss of motor function on LEFT side + RIGHT sided facial features. Decussation occurs in medulla +1  
kard  Sorry if im mistaken, Isnt A) Somatosensory? +1  
krewfoo99  Yes i think A should be somatosensory. Primary motor cortex would be present in the precentral gyrus +  
drpatinoire  A is primary motor. A and the gyrus at right side of A compose the paracentral lobule. +  

Can anyone explain why macrophage activity would be decreased in this? I wanted to pick one that had both mucus secreting activity as being increased along with increased macrophage activity with concomitant decrease in ciliary activity but this wasn't an option so I went with all increased. Since it's well-established that macrophages cause damage in emphysema (especially in smokers due to constant irritation from the smoke), how is it possible that macrophage activity would go DOWN?

kard  Mucus hypersecretion --> Induce airflow limitation in COPD "potential risk factor for accelerated decline in lung function" Cigarette smoke impairs both the phagocytic and respiratory burst function of neutrophils! Macrophages-->activated by cigarette smoke extract to release inflammatory mediators COPD--> alveolar macrophages and neutrophils are defective in their antimicrobial functions. Macrophages from COPD patients--> show reduced phagocytic uptake of bacteria. "Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae" I Hope This Helps... +  

submitted by seagull(529),

This is an incomplete hydatidiform mole. They contain incomplete fetal parts including stem cells which are trisomy and give rise to unstructured tissue.

kard  Can someone explain why the other choices are incorrect?, Thanks +  

submitted by haliburton(104),

This is water intoxication. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1877579

thisisfine   Agreed! It's along the lines of those marathon runners who collapse questions. Nothing but water for 24 hours = getting rid of too much sodium. +1  
temmy  are we just going to ignore the diarrhea for 3 days? what is its significance +1  
kard  Temmy, We aint Ignoring the Diarrhea, Actually the most likely electrolytes to get lost with it is sodium> chloride> potassium> bicarbonate... Plus the Water intoxication -> HYPONATREMIA +  
bronchophony  why not hypoglycemia? +  

submitted by sherry(10),

This is the second best choice I was gonna take during the exam. I thought Age was better since FA indicated decreased estrogen and old age are the reasons for bone resorption. Can somebody explain to me why Age could not possibly be the answer?

kard  I solve it like this: So age is 70 (already, nothing we can do to change it), is asking about a predictor of success in the Rehab process (So basically, what this patient did in matter of activity, life style, etc. to have a Good rehab process). So From all the answers the, Activity level is the most likely choice because of the, increase in Bone density(Specially Weigh bearing) and OsteoBlastic activity. +4  

submitted by monoloco(75),

Encapsulated organisms run rampant in patients who have no spleen, whether physically or functionally. (Recall the wide-array of sequalae sickle cell patients experience thanks to their functional autosplenectomy.)

sympathetikey  Agreed -- went with E. Coli like a dingus, just because I didn't associate DIC with S. Pneumo. Thought it was too easy. +  
chillqd  Isn't E. Coli also an encapsulated organism? What makes Strep pneumo more likely in this question just because its the more common cause? +3  
studentdo  Pseudomonas aeruginosa is encapsulated as well. I think the right answer has to do with DIC but why? +1  
mgoyo89  The only reason i found was S. pneumo is more common, I went with Pseudomonas because of the "overwhelming sepsis" :( +  
kard  Everyone is correct about the Encapsulated microbes, but this is one of those of "MOST LIKELY", and by far the most likely is S.Pneumo>>H.infl>N.Mening. (omitting that patients with history of splenectomy must be vaccinated. +  
djinn  Gram negative are more common in DIC my friends +