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NBME 16 Answers

nbme16/Block 2/Question#18 (13.3 difficulty score)
An animal study is conducted to assess the ...
Mucus production and secretion: increased; Activity of airway cilia: decreased; Alveolar macrophage function: decreased🔍

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kard  Mucus hypersecretion --> Induce airflow limitation in COPD "potential risk factor for accelerated decline in lung function" Cigarette smoke impairs both the phagocytic and respiratory burst function of neutrophils! Macrophages-->activated by cigarette smoke extract to release inflammatory mediators COPD--> alveolar macrophages and neutrophils are defective in their antimicrobial functions. Macrophages from COPD patients--> show reduced phagocytic uptake of bacteria. "Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae" I Hope This Helps... +12  

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submitted by ace9yak(3),

fa 2019 pg 662, Inhalation injury and sequelae. in the inhalation injury and sequelae part they say signed nasal hairs or soot in the oropharynx -> decreased activity of airway cilia as there is soot overlying them and cant function properly tobacco has silica (fa 2019 pg 663) - silica can disrupt phagolysosomes and impair macrophages -> decreased alveolar macrophage function as for the increased mucus production and secretion - idk i figured there is an irritant and your body will be trying to clear it some how, i guess think about COPD