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NBME 17 Answers

nbme17/Block 1/Question#8 (12.7 difficulty score)
A 6-week-old girl is brought to the physician ...
Immature lower esophageal sphincter🔍
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submitted by andro(109),

Differential Diagnosis of Newborn/Neonatal Vomiting

-Benign gastroesophageal reflux ( i.e immature lower esophageal sphincter ) regurgitation of food shortly after feeding .
No further symptoms , healthy children with normal development

-Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
Regurgitation - projectile nonbilious vomiting electrolyte imbalances ( alkalosis and hypokalemia ) * physical examination may reveal an olive mass on palpation of epigastrium
*typically starts from between 2nd and 7th week of age

-Midgut volvulus /Malrotation /Duodenal atresia * bilious vomiting * abdominal distention * Imaging may reveal signs like the double bubble sign ( duodenal atresia ) etc

Note: The list is not exhaustive as there are many more causes associated with newborn vomiiting

covid_19  To add on to Benign GER, I couldn't find anything in a cursory look through FA and also didn't know that GER was a thing in neonates, so I found this nice and concise article in UpToDate: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/gastroesophageal-reflux-in-premature-infants +  



I think that the answer is not pyloric stenosis, which presents with PROJECTILE non-bilious vomiting 4-6wks (classically first born baby boy).