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NBME 24 Answers

nbme24/Block 2/Question#15 (29.1 difficulty score)
An investigator is studying a new drug for ...
Free radical formation🔍
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 +11  upvote downvote
submitted by madojo(121),

The two main types of radiation type are ionizing and nonionizing.

The ionizing would be the radiotherapy and non-iodizing is from the sun.

Ionizing = free radical formation non ionizing (UVB) = DNA damage by formation of pyrimidine dimers




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therapeutic ionizing radiation(gamma rays,x-rays); -DNA double-strand breakage -Free radical formation




 +1  upvote downvote
submitted by andro(109),

And just incase you were as curious as I am and wanted to know what tautomerism is.... A tautomer is an isomer , and isomers are compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same element but different structural arrangemennts

A NOTE TO SELF : DO NOT PICK THIS ANSWER IN THE EXAM

cassdawg  ^^Also looked it up... Tautomerization is technically a mechanism of spontaneous DNA damage because tautomerization of a base can cause it to change its pairing property. But yeah I doubt it will ever be an answer on the exam. +  
cassdawg  According to wiki "Keto–enol and the analogous amino–imino tautomerism are among the primary causes of spontaneous mutations during DNA replication and repair" +  



Free radicals damage cells via membrane lipid peroxidation, protein modification, DNA breakage. Initiated via radiation exposure (eg, cancer therapy), metabolism of drugs (phase I), redox reactions, nitric oxide (eg, inflammation), transition metals, WBC (eg, neutrophils, macrophages) oxidative burst.

euchromatin69  fa19 pg 210 +