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Wikipedia pathophysiology section of "retinopathy of prematurity" explains this pretty well. Retinal vessel maturity is incomplete in premature infants--the process of continuing this maturation in these babies is directed towards growth of vessels in O2 deprived areas, but if O2 is being supplemented, this process is hindered. Therefore when O2 supplementation is removed, excessive vessel proliferation going into the vitreous humor (not where it is supposed to be) leads to retinopathy of prematurity (defined as "disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels leading to scarring and retinal detachment")
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