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submitted by step420(34),
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Oetrh neikdy Heroypsptrieh deu to dnrsieeca sserst g&;--t tno lipysrhapea bc not noescracu

masonkingcobra  Above answer is incorrect because hyperplasia can be either physiological or pathological. Prolonged hyperplasia can set the seed for cancerous growth however. Robbins: Stated another way, in pure hypertrophy there are no new cells, just bigger cells containing increased amounts of structural proteins and organelles. Hyperplasia is an adaptive response in cells capable of replication, whereas hypertrophy occurs when cells have a limited capacity to divide. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia also can occur together, and obviously both result in an enlarged (hypertrophic) organ. +43  
johnthurtjr  FTR Pathoma Ch 1 Dr. Sattar mentions hyperplasia is generally the pathway to cancer, with some exceptions like the prostate and BPH. +4  
sympathetikey  Tubular hypertrophy is the natural compensation post renal transplant. Just one of those things you have to know, unfortunately. +2  
charcot_bouchard  Isnt Kidney a labile a tissue & thus should undergo both. This ques is dipshit +  
brbwhat  Dr Sattar says, kidney is a stable tissue, at least pct is as seen in ATN. But I read, basically kidneys are mostly formed whatever number of nephrons have to be formed by birth, after that they can only undergo hyperplasia aka increase in size/or regenerate if need be in case of atn. We cant have more number of nephrons. +1  
mambaforstep  @brbwhat , do you mean kidneys can only undergo hyperTROPHY? +2  
j44n  .... you're not making more cells..... so it cant be hyperplasia +  


submitted by mcl(596),
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oT dnpaxe no ih,st ntcrainocto fo erxlof itrugiodm psdnourfu uelmcs rutelss in noefilx at teh PsID dan Is.PP Teh ndotne sthaatce ta eht tpi of eth fg,irne ni rsonttac to rxfleo guitordmi piealisrcufsi hactea(ts ta eth P).IsP clelRa nnrioevnait of eht oamfrre emlcuss is tmyslo fmro eht diemna er,vne eeptxc fro 15. mlsesuc (rlaun aflh fo orfexl mguroiidt fpnruduso and eth xrefol ripca ulisarn, tobh pisdeupl by naurl iwhhc askme it ez to erbmmree ayy).

uBt lsoa fi ouy tgo itsh gownr keil me go rade taht iknl euasebc its' a larely inec veeriw.

samsam3711  Also a side note, this is called Jersey finger and is relatively common injury among athletes https://www.orthobullets.com/hand/6015/jersey-finger +2  
brbwhat  FDP only causes problem with dip flexion. Fds causes injury with pip flexion. +  
brbwhat  Causes problem* with There is an nbme question in 24 related to this concept as to what causes what, +  


submitted by mcl(596),
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oT xpdaen no sh,it croinncatot of foxler dimiugort onpudsfru lscmeu ltesurs in xilnfoe ta the PDsI nda PIs.P heT enondt ttheasca ta teh pti of eht ,inrfge in rtnoctsa to lorefx itgurdomi siifrseiuacpl tectaah(s at het sPP)I. Reclla tonevraniin of teh efroram ucemsls is omstyl morf eht nideam nr,eev ecetxp for .51 smluesc (anrul hfal of efxlor gitumorid drfosuupn nda het oxlfre irpac rlisnau, thob sildpupe by anlru ichhw kamse ti ze to eememrbr .)yay

uBt slao fi you tog ihst rgwon keli me og adre ttah knli uaceebs 'sti a ylarel ienc r.vwiee

samsam3711  Also a side note, this is called Jersey finger and is relatively common injury among athletes https://www.orthobullets.com/hand/6015/jersey-finger +2  
brbwhat  FDP only causes problem with dip flexion. Fds causes injury with pip flexion. +  
brbwhat  Causes problem* with There is an nbme question in 24 related to this concept as to what causes what, +  


submitted by susyars(32),

Is it me or this question is worded weird?

“this cells are most likely to closely resemble which of the following types of normal respiratory tract cells“

Like, you dont have normally neuroendocrine cells in the lung

Maybe i miss understood this question, i knew exactly what they were talking about, but the way they set the last sentence really drives me LOCA

brbwhat  I SCRATCHED OUT NEUROENDOCRINE FOR THE SAME REASON! +2  
brbwhat  I SCRATCHED OUT NEUROENDOCRINE FOR THE SAME REASON! +  
abhishek021196  They are talking about Kulchitsky cells = pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC). These are the cells from which NE tumors of the lung i.e. small cell ca arise from. +9  


submitted by susyars(32),

Is it me or this question is worded weird?

“this cells are most likely to closely resemble which of the following types of normal respiratory tract cells“

Like, you dont have normally neuroendocrine cells in the lung

Maybe i miss understood this question, i knew exactly what they were talking about, but the way they set the last sentence really drives me LOCA

brbwhat  I SCRATCHED OUT NEUROENDOCRINE FOR THE SAME REASON! +2  
brbwhat  I SCRATCHED OUT NEUROENDOCRINE FOR THE SAME REASON! +  
abhishek021196  They are talking about Kulchitsky cells = pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC). These are the cells from which NE tumors of the lung i.e. small cell ca arise from. +9  


submitted by hayayah(1074),
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ic,Nteo the mste ayss csor"resopr ni eth sikn"

3D loce)hofcecilrl(a orfm usxreoep of inks urasttm( )aalebs ot usn, tniioesgn of f,his i,kml p.tsnla

D2 (lfaicer)eoogcrl form ogiinnste of t,plans fni,ug ysets.a

thoB nevotdecr ot H2-O5 3D (gaetosr )mfor in irlev adn to het evicat orfm 2,5H()21-O 3D o)i(lrlccita in dikny.e

sympathetikey  C is the 3rd letter in the alphabet. Hence, D3 = Cholecalciferol +4  
karljeon  Thanks for the explanation. The question stem made it sound like "what future step will be decreased?" Actual question: "Decreased production of which... is most LIKELY TO OCCUR in this patient?" Maybe NBME needs a grammar Nazi working for them. +8  
bharatpillai  question says "decreased production of which of the following precursors in skin is most likely to occur in this patient? the answer has to be 7-dehydrocholecalciferol! +5  
bharatpillai  7 dehydrocholesterol +2  
brbwhat  Yeah i did the same, but then realised acc to uw flowchart 7dehydrochole.. is converted to cholecalciferol in presence of uv rays. So the decreased precursor would be cholecalciferol since we already have 7 dehydrocholecalciferol not being converted by uvrays Tho the uw chart sites both ergo and chole as dietary sources. +2  
drzed  Wouldn't 7-dehydrocholesterol build up in the skin? Since UV rays convert 7-dehydrocholesterol into cholecalciferol, if you are lacking the conversion, the reactant (7-dehydrocholesterol) should accumulate. +  
brbwhat  They’re asking decreased production of which of the following precursor would occur? 7 dehydrocholestrol builds up, but decreased production of cholecalciferol takes place, which is a precursor in the pathway for vitamin d formation +1  


submitted by krewfoo99(93),
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In rdaosb adn d,ebyon tI is dasi ttah htrid greede erath block is edu ot kocbl ni het ISH nujekeiPr m.ytses So hwy luodw oblaitna fo VA oned acues iths ides?esa

uWtlndo otrdeitcnsu fo atpr fo ftel leeivnrct eb a ertteb wrasne ?

brbwhat  Had the same doubt, Read the part again and found this. Type 2 Is caused when purkinje is hanging by a thread and therefore some impulses conducted, some not. Chb is caused by purkinje not conducting impulses from san, some lower pacemaker ie purkinje or his is depolarising by itself hence venrticles beat independently. There is BLOCK in purkinje for conduction from san. Among options the only thing that establishes this block is avn ablation. +  


submitted by neonem(568),
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olCsizaolt si a ptsopodehsieearsh tii;hrniob edals to edaniscre cPAM hcwih iibhntsi leapltet nainaatoitoerngdtlav/cui ilwhe saol ucngasi vsiio.dtlaoan lAl fo eth etorh istnpoo rkow on ehrtei utalaesurcv or seelpltat utb ont ohtb.

kernicterusthefrog  Just to add: cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA), which is the more direct mediator of platelet aggregation inhibition, and of myosin light-chain kinase inhibition (which causes inhibition of smooth muscle contraction and thus vasodilation). Just in case there's a question that gets more specific than this one! +13  
brbwhat  wasn’t dypirdamole an option? +  
fataldose  I believe they also cause vasodilation by decreasing the cellular reuptake of adenosine by endothelial cells and the adenosine causes vasodilation. +  


submitted by hayayah(1074),
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teocNi, het tsem says "erssrcoopr ni het snki"

3D erla)hicl(oocelcf rmof eouesrxp fo knsi tu(rmast bls)eaa ot uns, inngtosei fo i,fsh k,iml sat.nlp

D2 eargf)llecroci(o orfm esoniintg of ,nlapst gui,fn esay.ts

otBh nvcdetoer to 5OH2- 3D saoterg( )rfom in veirl adn to eht ecvita rmof OH122,-5() D3 iati(co)lrlc in eykni.d

sympathetikey  C is the 3rd letter in the alphabet. Hence, D3 = Cholecalciferol +4  
karljeon  Thanks for the explanation. The question stem made it sound like "what future step will be decreased?" Actual question: "Decreased production of which... is most LIKELY TO OCCUR in this patient?" Maybe NBME needs a grammar Nazi working for them. +8  
bharatpillai  question says "decreased production of which of the following precursors in skin is most likely to occur in this patient? the answer has to be 7-dehydrocholecalciferol! +5  
bharatpillai  7 dehydrocholesterol +2  
brbwhat  Yeah i did the same, but then realised acc to uw flowchart 7dehydrochole.. is converted to cholecalciferol in presence of uv rays. So the decreased precursor would be cholecalciferol since we already have 7 dehydrocholecalciferol not being converted by uvrays Tho the uw chart sites both ergo and chole as dietary sources. +2  
drzed  Wouldn't 7-dehydrocholesterol build up in the skin? Since UV rays convert 7-dehydrocholesterol into cholecalciferol, if you are lacking the conversion, the reactant (7-dehydrocholesterol) should accumulate. +  
brbwhat  They’re asking decreased production of which of the following precursor would occur? 7 dehydrocholestrol builds up, but decreased production of cholecalciferol takes place, which is a precursor in the pathway for vitamin d formation +1  


submitted by usmle11a(74),
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eanogillle : ryve coomnm ni naaevcdd ea,g OD,CP unsserpeuisdmmop aeistntp adn " ngiog bcak orfm a nresecdei lalh" chhiw ybrpalob adh a ntdoiemnctaa XA estmys caails(lby sfit revye one in the Q)

nodea X : ouwld neptsre whit tvuciisj,nconti tahrto pina .u .f.l :irsvu ont eevenryo tog eht eaiseds VSR: no cndlrhei s tepr e:upnmo oduwl atrteg a agrrle ptapoolniu fo halteyh oleepp as we.ll

bharatpillai  why would they say that the only people who didnt get affected by the disease were people on steroids (lupus nephritis and severe asthma) couldnt have been rsv since it causes croup in children. strep pneumo would cause fever and other systemic signs. i went for adenovirus because uworld says most common causes of copd excacerbation are viral infections... +2  
brbwhat  I went for adeno forr the same reason. I guess the MAIN HINT is that this is not a copd exacerbation. Since people without prexesting copd also had pneumonia, also people with copd exacerbation will have different presenting symptoms, here it was told, that we are told that dx was penumonia. People with copd exacerbation wouldn’t be diagnosed with pneumonia if it was an adenovirus infections. +1  
j44n  adenovirus doesnt cause pneumonia its just makes the current COPD sx worse +  
j44n  the SLE and asthmatic patient were both considered slightly immunosupressed or theyre just more likely to get something (SLE pt= your B cells are too busy making Ig's to kill your kidney, and the asthmatic is on corticosteroids that aopotose your t cells) but they're not COPD patients so the pneumonmia wont be as severe, all in all legionella causes really really bad pneumonia in COPD patients and less severe (pontiac fever) in those with mild immunosupression +2