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NBME 15 Answers

nbme15/Block 4/Question#7 (7.2 difficulty score)
A 17-year-old boy with chronic renal ...
HydronephrosisπŸ”
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 -1 
submitted by baja_blast(93),

Anyone know why this was Hydronephrosis and not Staghorn Calculus??

hchairston  There are no calculi in the image. The image shows a dilated ureter, you know it's a ureter because there is an opening into the hilum of the kidney. +2  
prosopagnosia  Personally, I couldn't tell that the ureter was dilated without a comparison image. But what I did notice was the dilation of the renal calyces and severe renal atrophy which clued me into some ureteric obstruction --> Hydronephrosis. +1  
trazobone  OK so I put ARPKD bc of chronic renal insufficiency and also i thought the dilated parts were cysts +2  
shieldmaiden  Remember that for ARPKD both kidneys will be affected and it will involve the cortex as well as the medulla. If you notice, the cortex is intact +2