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FA2019 pg.479 + spina bifida occulta: failure of cudal neuropore to close, but no herniation + anencephaly: failure of rostral peuropore to close --> no forebrain, open calvarium
This child has spina bifida. Failure to close the neural tube can lead bladder and bowel dysfunction in the fetus --> oligohydramnios --> compression of the fetus, clubfeet, etc. Axis specification and zone of polarizing activity is implying a defect in the sonic hedgehog gene that would lead to holoprosencephaly Closure of the rostral neuropore would cause anencephaly. Defective development of the apical ectodermal ridge would cause distal limb malformations. Without the neuropore, the neural plate and nervous system wouldnt form. Defect in scheduled apoptosis can present with webbed fingers, etc.