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NBME 17 Answers

nbme17/Block 3/Question#11 (4.9 difficulty score)
A 30-year-old woman who is at 20 weeks' ...
Tracheoesophageal atresia🔍
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submitted by cassdawg(580),

Tracheoesophageal atresia is associated with increased amniotic (polyhydramnios) fluid due to the inability of the fetus to swallow the amniotic fluid (FA2020 p641 and 359).

  • Cleft lip is not associated with swallowing abnormality and therefore not associated with polyhydramnios.
  • Encephalocele is a neural tube defect where the brain protrudes through the skull and into a sac-like covering. It is not associated with polyhydramnios (anencephaly which is a completely open skull with no forebrain is associated with polyhydramnios due to lack of swallowing center in the brain)
  • Renal agenesis would be associated with OLIGOhydramnios (too little amniotic fluid) because the baby cannot produce urine. This leads to Potter's sequence (FA2020 p578)
  • Urethral obstruction would also lead to oligohydramnios due to decreased urine production.