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NBME 19 Answers

nbme19/Block 4/Question#17 (6.3 difficulty score)
60 yo man, 20-year history of hypertension; ...
Cardiac output: decreased; CVP: increased🔍

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anjum  shortness of breath = Left heart failure +2  
cassdawg  The way I approached the question was a little different: I realized it was heart failure and left would cause lung backup and right the venous backup. When addressing the +2  
cassdawg  *the question my thinking was CO = HRxSV; in heart failure we are not pumping as much blood so lower SV (and on top of that his HR is not increased and I think the low blood pressure indicates decompensated heart failure) so CO is definitely lowered. Then CVP would have to be increased because that is how we get the edema (and backup into the venous system increases CVP). +