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NBME 17 Answers

nbme17/Block 3/Question#37 (5.0 difficulty score)
A 4-year-old boy is brought to the physician ...
Congenital ureteral obstruction🔍
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The patient is presenting with hydronephrosis and a UTI. Remember, patients are prone to UTIs when urine is stagnant, so if there's an obstruction, there's an increased chance of UTI.

Being that it's a boy, there's a chance this is a posterior urethral valve that is obstructing the ureter.