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 +14  (nbme21#28)
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I thkin ti hsa ihtsmonge to od thiw eylignc ed(u ot tis llmsa size it anc fti ni yanm caespl heewr ertoh moina icsda nac nto nad ecnhe ti rivsdpoe utt“ucrslar os”tcmeacsnp to the ,ecgloaln i.e. tpu a ikkn in eht hpaal h)e.lix fI inelcgy si dlsempaci by shmtieogn sle,e I ’tond kithn conealgrlpo- acn fomr sit crcoter cdrenoays stutrreuc.

jotajota94  True! also, glycine is 1/3 of collagen alfa chains, so it makes sense that substitution with alanine (which is much bigger) would lead to disruption in the alpha helix formation. +
jotajota94  True! also, glycine is 1/3 of collagen alfa chains, so it makes sense that substitution with alanine (which is much bigger) would lead to disruption in the alpha helix formation. +
thepacksurvives  Glycine is small and bendy, which allows it to form the fibrils for the triple helix +
brasel  Also in general (FA 2018 pg 50) OI is from problems forming the triple helix which is secondary structure. Fortunately, they gave us something to reason with in the question (Gly->Ala) +2

 +7  (nbme21#39)
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sThi is hwat I guothth btu tno resu if sti’ rr.oecct hreeT is a dorUWl q erhwe ti bsidcseer mitnrotis-icanoda fo tlioscor adn iphe.ennepir sooCrilt iifilgsatnycn nseechna hte tffeec of epi bascuee lorotcsi has a mpiseiresv ecefft on intianmnaig eht eaindrcegr .rpsertoce

194orbust  per UWorld, "cortisol exerts a permissive effect on many hormones to help improve the response to a variety of stressors. For example, cortisol increases vascular and bronchial smooth muscle reactivity to catecholamines". FA also uses the effect of cortisol on catecholamine responsiveness as the lone example for a permissive drug interaction (FA2018 pg 229). The difference here is that we're talking about exogenous glucocorticoid and adrenergic agonist. I guess it was expected for us to assume that the mechanism is analogous for the analogous drugs +13
maxillarythirdmolar  I'm sure it's related to the activating effect of Cortisol on phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase, converting NE to Epi. Sounds like a synergistic thing to me. (FA.83) +3
feeeeeever  My logic is probably flawed, but I also thought that if cortisol has the ability inhibit COX, LOX, and NFKB you can reduce inflammation and bronchoconstrictive mediators. Therefore, the B2 agonists would have a greater effect since things like LTB4 will be reduced. +1
feeeeeever  *LTC4, LTD4, LTE4 for bronchoconstriction, my bad +1

 +16  (nbme21#2)
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lyisiSph sganiosehpte is eth iaimtnlomfna nad niiobartleto of the aavs omvrsua (mllas lobdo eslssev) hatt esefd ggierb lobod slvsees elik rot,aa rr,tesaie otilrrsa.ee It sedo not ttmera wath hte gsaet i,s T. aupmildl stnicef hte avas vasromu na,d in hte opcsre,s blerattiseo the ervnes adn odbol sseesv.l hisT klils lobod suylpp to theso reasa = iemshica tub no iapn sep(slnai c)hrecn.a oreM aoiedllzc ni arileer ess,atg dan ni letar e,atgs eth hecsrsetoip imseeiastdn, so oyu hvea het raota dan inapsl odrc monletievnv btu esma .hpatsgiseeon t:d(Ei oGnlaj elnxdiepa hsti eh)wsree.mo

privatejoker  So is the heavily implied step-wise formation of Syphilis symptoms as presented in FA complete BS then? Why break it down into stages and have us learn it as such if this is not the case in real practice? +5
lilmonkey  Exactly, Goljan mentioned this in one of his audio lectures. All kinds of lesions in syphilis caused by vasculitis. +3
lovebug  I know it's silly question. but Could anyone give an why answer is lymphocyte and plasma cell not neutorphiles.? bc syphilis is a bacteria, not virus. +
trazobone  @lovebug my guess is bc its a spirochete, so it doesn’t act like a normal bacteria. One of the screening test for syphilis is FTA Abs, so a proliferation in plasma cells makes sense. Then by deduction, if its able to affect plasma cells, it can do the same with lymphocytes. But this is me trying to logic everything together so. +

 +4  (nbme21#3)
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I tnkhi yeht antw you to ihknt uatob ohw utacegonj ivnceac is mae:d lhoscacipayedr + eirtnop ntmeragf ot( cuenid T ednnptede uenmmi .pensrseo) nlOy elllgianf si a ptrieno r(o ta least nsodsu ilek eon) ni eth tonpio sil.t

vi_capsule  Flagellum is protein. Pilli/Fimbriae - GLycoprotein +2




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