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Comments ...

 +1  (nbme21#48)

HTN emergency, Sodium Nitroprusside. Unlike hydralazine a balanced vasodilator (vein = arteriol)

sympathetikey  Well then, I guess we should just forget about our old pals the Alpha-2 agonists. Good call. I didn't even see that this was hypertensive emergency. Dumb on my part.
zup  so yea clonidine would be used for hypertensive urgency, but this guy is over 180 (210) so they have to use something like hydralazine or nitroprusside both will increase cGMP
whoissaad  Drugs used to treat HTN emergency: Nitroprusside Labetolol Nicardipine Clevidpine Fenoldapam Clonidine




Subcomments ...

I think they want you to think about how conjugate vaccine is made: polysaccharide + protein fragment (to induce T dependent immune response). Only flagellin is a protein (or at least sounds like one) in the option list.

vi_capsule  Flagellum is protein. Pilli/Fimbriae - GLycoprotein +1  


submitted by taway(7),

Does anybody understand why we are allowed to interfere with the clinical decisionmaking of two other specialists directly? Wouldn't that muddy the waters even more by adding our opinion? I don't see the underlying principle that explains the rationale in this answer.

jcrll  I think it's about adding our opinion and more about seeing what the situation is because a patient contacted you in distress. The others are about contacting management off hearsay; that could also "muddy the waters," I Is this question also addressing quaternary prevention? +1  
meningitis  I agree with jcrll. My same thought process but then I changed it to psychiatric consultation in order to first attend the patient's distress and anxiety since it was hindering her decision making. Besides, the whole ordeal about her treatments and ineffectiveness was emotionally and physically exhausting her. +2  
vi_capsule  Referral is NEVER a answer +6  
tsl19  Going straight to the chair of the ethics committee without having spoken to the other physicians would be inappropriate because it would be jumping a bunch of steps in communication first - like jcrll said, you want to get the picture of what's going on from the other physicians first. Maybe the gynecologic oncologist isn't actually as opposed to palliative measures as the patient perceives him to be and thinks he's doing what the patient wants, etc. It could just be miscommunication, which you could help clear up without getting ethics involved ... better to start there. +3  


submitted by mcl(232),

PCOS is associated with abnormal production of sex steroids, including dysfunction of estrogen production and progesterone. Chronically elevated levels of estrogen can cause endometrial hyperplasia.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3917599/

meningitis  Why isnt it endometriosis? Could someone help me out on this? +  
meningitis  Sorry, I was confusing with higher risk for endometrial carcinoma. +  
vi_capsule  Estrogen is responsible for cyclical bleeding and pain associated with endometriosis hence progestin is a treatment modality. But estrogen isnt a risk factor for Endometriosis. Rather theres retrograde flow, metaplatic transformation etc theories are responsible for endometriosis. +  
sympathetikey  Tfw you get so thrown off by a picture that you don't read the question properly. +3  
hyperfukus  @meningitis idk if u still care lol but always go back to endometriosis=ectopic endometrial tissue outside of the uterus so you can rule it out since increased estrogen would cause you to have worsened endometriosis or a thicker one but not directly...you can see the clumps of the follicles in the ovaries if you look super close so that along with the presentation takes you to PCOS and anytime you don't have a baby or stay in the proliferative phase(estrogen phase) you get endometrial proliferation-->hyperplasia--->ultimately carcinoma +