to snoo-finity ... and beyond!
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I actually thought that the posterior column findings were likely due to B12 deficiency - "subactue combined degeneration", due to malabsorption, as we see in this pt (. Turns out vitamin E can also cause symptoms which look like subacute combined degeneration: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9012278, as does Copper (TIL): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15249607
Vitamin E deficiency causes posterior column findings and hemolytic anemia :)
The way I think about it is that essentially, vitamin E is an anti-oxidant. Vitamin E deficiency = LOTS of oxidation, i.e. free radicals, which are toxic to most cells in the body (particularly myelination and RBCs). That's why it can be used with Alzheimer's patients.
Don't mind me. Just sippin my dumb ass soda over here.
The term "Normoblast" isn't even in first aid.
NBME testing your knowledge of synonyms. Have to know 15 descriptive words of the same thing I guess.
I wish they would stop making it so every other question I know the answer and I can't find it among the answer choices because they decided to use some medical thesaurus on us.
Just to add to this; a-thal is due to a deletion. While b-thal is due to a mutation. If they had a b-thal there would be target cells. a-thal just presents as microcytic & hypochromic.
I'm not 100% about this so take it with a grain of salt. But i was confused about why there would be a systolic murmur. I think its b/c prolonged ASD would eventually cause pulmonic stenosis which would present as a systolic murmur. But besides that I super agree with @sympathetikey
Low key was hoping for someone to try and argue this one...
Pg 455 of F.A. mentions that alcoholism can be a cause of avascular necrosis.
I think the small dark area on the left head of femur and the darkened neck are the avascular sites.
Head: (obvious lesion on the RT femur, but similar discrete lesion on the left as seen on the practice NBME)
He wouldnt be playing golf if he had septic arthritis. Avascular necrosis is a more chronic condition that has a slow onset.
Is this the best approach to all of the "strongest predisposing risk factor" type questions?
There is a town of 1,000 men. Nine hundred of them work as lawyers. The other 100 are engineers. Tom is from this town. He rides his bike to work. In his free time, he likes solving math puzzles. He built his own computer. What is Tom's occupation most likely to be? Answer: Tom is most likely to be a lawyer! Don't let assumptions distract you from the overwhelming force of sheer probability! "Given that Tom is from this town, his most likely occupation (from the available data) = lawyer."
There is a town of 1,000 spontaneous pneumo patients. Six hundred are tall, thin and male. The other 400 are something else. Two hundred of the 1,000 smoke cigarettes. The other 800 do not. What risk factor is most strongly associated with spontaneous pneumo? (Answer: Not being a smoker! ... because out of 1,000 people, the most common trait is NOT smoking [800 members].)
beautiful! also, i think about odds ratio vs. relative risk...odds ratio is retrospective of case-control studies to find risk factor or exposure that correlates with grater ratio of disease. relative risk is an estimation of incidence in the future when looking at different cohort studies.
@impostersyndrome I love me some probability and statistics. Glad my rant was useful :P
i hate it which is why your rant was extremely useful lol i learned a ton thanks dr.doom!
I caught he was thin. The only reason I didn't pick Gender and body habitus is because he was not overly tall (5'10"). I talked myself out of it because I thought the body habitus was too "normal" because he was not both thin AND tall. Got to keep telling myself to not think too hard on these. Thanks for the explanation.
There was a question about this in Uworld. for *stubborn* patients who are "not ready to quit" just yet you use the motivational approach. The technique acronym is OARS: Open ended questions, Affirmation, Reflect, Summarize.
Additionally the guy himself says "I know smoking is bad for me" Like he knows its bad, he doesnt care, but give him nicotine replacement and maybe he'll quit...
I didn't think nicotine replacement was a good answer choice b/c if he isn't ready to quit then why would he agree to use alternatives.
People who smoke and are addicted like the feel of the cigs and environmental ques. Using replacements would be more challenging. The second best answer choice would have been Rx.
why not detail the long-therm health effects of smoking?
@ titanesxvi: I assume because they always like the most "open ended" response.
If you start detailing the long term effects, the patient might interpret that as attempting to convince, and might resist or feel pressured. By having the patient elucidate what they consider pros and cons, you allow it to be an open discussion.
Also because the patient states he already knows smoking hurts him in the long run so it may come off as lecturing on something he already knows. I view this as what is the least-judgmental way to facilitate the patient moving on to the next step of the stages of change model largely of their own volition.
i choose the option c which is initiate a pulmunary function test. why is that a wrong choice?