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I think there are two questions with this answer!!I was so scared :(
yep ---not IL-2 bc that stimulates Tcells and NK cells- I think I blacked out when I answered this question
Depends on where the infarct is I guess? Crackles in lung base means increased left sided pressure and therefore PCWP. At least that's how I thought of it.
Because think the circulation as a closed circuit, in this case the heart isn't pumping well and the pressure is going to backup. that is why the PCWP is increased
It depends if the patient goes into heart failure because of the infarct or whatever the insult is. The crackles in the lungs gave it away. If crackles are present then there is blood backing up. the increased pressure in the pulmonary vasculature causes leaking into the alveoli which we hear as crackles when the lung expands.
I would say because this happened between two bacteria, but in transduction what causes the acquisition of bacterial resistance is coming from a bacteriophage, which is a virus that infects bacteria, but that is never hinted at the question!
Quick Overview of the involved topics and answer choices that are relevant in this question:
Transduction: Involves phage, cleaves DNA and takes a part with it as it is packaged. Generalized is when is happens by accident. Specialized is an excision event.
Transformation: bacteria takes up naked DNA around it and incorporates it therefore becoming "transformed" e.g. (SHiN) S. Pneuma, H. Influenza type B, and Neisseria.
Transposition: Jumping from one location to another within same bacterial organism (e.g. from chromosome to plasmid)
Conjugation: Above mentioned plasmid gets transferred from conjugal bridge from one bacteria to another.
Easy here...first both are G-ves which likely have a sex pilus and if cultured together as in this case transfer their plasmid. Transduction need phage. Transposition is exchange of genetic material inside the bacteria b/n the dna and the plasmid or vv (FA2019)
So as far as I understand, you don’t really get a bulging, defined abdominal mass with fecal impaction. Much more likely to see this with a hernia.
Fecal impaction can be palpated in the abdomen, since it'd be accumulating in the rectum and colon, not the groin. Hope that helps!
a little late but they also mention that the mass had bowel sounds hence it was an incarcerated bowel! :)
question said right groin, so idk, didn't think fecal impaction would be that low. + the bowel sounds made me think there is something at the groin that can make bowel sounds? --> Hernia.
think in 3D. mass in right groin. in my head thats very low down below the belt line. i thought if its fecal impaction it would be on the left groin.
next they hear bowel sounds over this mass in the right; if it was impaction right there i dont think youll be hearing anything, therefore the bowel loop is over there and is not impacted and thats what they hear.