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 +0  (nbme24#35)

Baby developed RDS --> guven O2 as Rx --> complications of O2 herapy in neonated = RIB (FA 2019) R = Retinopathy of prematurity I = Inraventricular hemorrhage B = Bronchopulmonary dysplasia


 +0  (nbme24#25)

Increased Phosphate loss --> Fanconi syndrome --> affects the PCT


 +0  (nbme24#35)

Desomosmes by function interconnect keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum - startum spinosum is the suprabasal layer. Exclude option: a) Lucida is too high ; not in continuation with basal layer c) Corneum is even higher, Granulosum and Corneum aren't n continuation d) Lamina dens (BM) and lamina lucida not keratinocytes and not in continuation either e) Melanocyte are in the basal layer; it is not a keratinocyte

b) is the only option that makes sense based on histology and also the only option that speaks about inter-keratinocyte linkage


 +0  (nbme24#35)

Desomosmes by function interconnect keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum - startum spinosum is the suprabasal layer. Exclude option: a) Lucida is too high ; not in continuation with basal layer c) Corneum is even higher, Granulosum and Corneum aren't n continuation d) Lamina dens (BM) and lamina lucida not keratinocytes and not in continuation either e) Melanocyte are in the basal layer; it is not a keratinocyte

b) is the only option that makes sense based on histology and also the only option that speaks about inter-keratinocyte linkage


 +0  (nbme22#40)

DKA is a state of decreased insulin; since we know that insulin causes a shift of K+ into the cells low levels of insulin will prevent this and result in hyperkalemia. In addition, due to hyperglycemia and high ECF osmolality water will shift out of the cells into the ECF and K+ shifts out with the water which will futher increase the hyperkalemia


 +0  (nbme22#22)

The receptor in question is a G protein receptor on the pituitary mass. This would be the GHRH receptor. The GH receptor will be present downstream so that GH released from the pituitary can bind to it (these are JAK/STAT receptors). GHRH receptors are G¬s receptors. These receptors are bound at the alpha-subunit to GDP in the inactive state. When GHRH binds they activated when GTP attaches to the alpha-subunit instead. And thereby promotoes adenyl cyclase activity. GTPase is responsible to cleave this GTP from the alpha subunit to switch of the receptoe. Therefor a lack of GTPase activity will render he Gs receptor in a prolonged on state  Increased activity of Adenyl Cyclase.


 +0  (nbme22#41)

Central Blood volume refers to the blood in the central or cardiopulmonary compartment. During cold temperature there is peripheral vasoconstriction to prevent heat dissipation from the extremities which means there is less blood in the peripheries and more in the central compartment –> Central Blood volume increases Greater volume in the heart will cause stretching of the atrial wall and stimulate ANP release  increased ANP High Central blood volume  high volume state  downregulates ADH secretion  normal/decreased ADH


 +0  (nbme22#41)

Central Blood volume refers to the blood in the central or cardiopulmonary compartment. During cold temperature there is peripheral vasoconstriction to prevent heat dissipation from the extremities which means there is less blood in the peripheries and more in the central compartment –> Central Blood volume increases Greater volume in the heart will cause stretching of the atrial wall and stimulate ANP release  increased ANP High Central blood volume  high volume state  downregulates ADH secretion  normal/decreased ADH


 +0  (nbme23#41)

I think the question refers to a scenario caused by ablation of a particular region of the heart.

If you look carefully there are some pre-mature ventricular beats (or rather just 1). Pre-mature ventricular beats can be caused by ablation of the AV node since the AV node is responsible for rhythm control by controlling the number of SA node impulses that are transmitted to the ventricular electrical network.


 +0  (nbme23#45)

Serotonin is synthesised at the Raphe nucles. Hence, Fluoxetine which is and SSRI will prevent Serotonin synthesis since it maintains a high level of serotonin in the synapse.


 +0  (nbme23#3)

The question stem mentions 3 subsets of patients: a) Some patients were inconsistent with taking medication or "not adherent" to medication regimen b) Some patients discontinued the drug they were randomized to completely c) A subset of these patients in point 'b', who stopped the medication were then prescribe the medication from the comparison group.

The ultimate question however is regarding whether patients under point 'a'(as above) should be included or excluded.

Ideally this depends upon your study protocol. In essence you may have an 'Intention to treat protocol' or an 'Adherent protocol'. As part of an adherent protocol you only include patients or study subjects (as referred to in basic science research) you only include those patients that strictly followed the protocol and exclude everyone else. This is mostly how basic science protocols are designed.

With clinical research however being completely per protocol is difficult and that's where the intention-to-treat protocol apples. This is to accommodate the subjective nature of human subjects in clinical research. Following up with human subjects is but obvious harder than manually handling mice or pigs in the lab. So in such cases as long as the study team has followed protocol in contacting the patient and playing their role all patient data can be included even if there are some minor protocol deviations due to logistical issues. All these deviations need to be reported to the IRB ofcourse and specified in the manuscript in the most appropriate manner.


 +0  (nbme23#1)

The most common cyst in a young female is Follicular cyst; this is a cystic dilatation of an unruptured Graffian follicle.

Failure of Graffian follicle to rupture --> Anovulation

Ref FA2019 Pg 631-632





Subcomments ...

submitted by rhsteps(0),

the question implies that it is a case of laxative abuse ( thus metabolic alkalosis) but the answer turns out to be the electrolyte disturbance of simply diarrhea (normal anion gap metablic acidosis) . question wrongly phrased and confusing

osgoodschlatter10  Not really. Diarrhoea and dehydration are A/Es of Laxative use (for Sketchy fans remeber the spoiling mud bath). +