Transposition of the vanA gene from vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus is how it transfers resistance. They use transposons which are located on plasmids. If you have plasmid loss, you won't have transposons, and resistance will decrease.
Usually breaks down succinylcholine. Mutated pseudocholinesterase will not break down succinylcholine as well --> increased succinylcholine in your system --> longer to recover from the anesthetic.
This would just be the normal response of our kidneys to when we don't drink water enough (aka just normal).
Proximal tubule is isotonic because we are reabsorbing BOTH Na+ and H2O.
Macula densa is hypotonic because it is sensing the distal convoluted tubule -- the most DILUTE part of the nephron. Remember the countercurrent exchange system - thick ascending limb is losing NaCl (urine gets less concentrated as it ascends).
Medullary collecting duct is hypertonic because we are reabsorbing all the water making the urine more concentrated.
Question was tricky -- need to look ate FOLATE levels. Both B12 deficiency and folate deficiency will cause an increase in homocysteine. Only B12 deficiency will cause an increase in BOTH methylmalonic acid AND homocysteine.
Inhaled anesthetics that have low blood:gas partition coefficient/blood solubility dissolve in blood more easily. Therefore, there is LESS gas needed to saturate blood -- aka faster saturation of blood. This leads to faster saturation of brain.
tldr; low solubility --> faster onset --> faster recovery
Immune thrombocytopenia (FA 2017, pg 405) - causes destruction of antibody-platelet complex by spleen leading to decrease in platelet QUANTITY and increased megakaryocytes on bone marrow biopsy.