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My FA2018 has “C7” bolded, meaning it is the main nerve root. But I also got this one wrong so I can’t be much help besides that.
Honestly just a guess but I have this vague understanding that intrinsic hand muscles are C8-T1 so we might’ve expected more hand motor findings as well with a C8 lesion.
I narrowed it down to C7 using the fact that the C7 myotome is elbow extension. I also learned that the C7 nerve root was the main contributor to the triceps DTR so I just went with that.
They also mentioned that the person had weakness pronating the right forearm which is performed by the biceps. Biceps is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve which is C5-C7 and that's what helped me pick C7 > C8.
Sorry, I thought the biceps was a supinator of the forearm?
yes.. its the supinator not pronator
*As an addition, median nerve involvement would have leaned more toward C8 than C7.
Do you have anymore useful mnemonics for brachial plexus?
FA pg 494 for mnemonics
Doesn't look like there are many in FA 2019. S1/S2 - Buckle my shoe. L3/L4 - Shut the door. C5/C6 - Pick up sticks.
S2-S4 keeps the penis off the floor :) (cremaster reflex)
Hellppp. pls why is it not decreased capillary oncotic pressure?
@ henoch280 Because there is no change in the levels of protein in the blood.
theoretically you could develop liver failure from the increase in central venous pressure (e.g. cardiac cirrhosis) and THEN you would develop a decrease in oncotic pressure.
Yes I’m at a loss for this one too. Still can’t figure out how we’re expected to differentiate those based on this slide shown.
The only logical explanation that I can think of is that reactive lymphocytes may be seen in LYMPHOMAS as opposed to granulocytes which are seen in LEUKEMIAS
Such a shitty way to trick us, hah!
reactive lymphocytes are seen in EBV infection. you would see lymphocytes in the slide not neutrophils FA2018 pg 165
That makes sense.. but was the question talking about EBV infections or hematological malignancies? Just a vague question I wasn’t really sure what exactly was it trying to teach us, I guess the reactive lymphocytosis just threw me off!
Anyways, thanks for the clarification buddy!
They way I thought about it was:
Granulocytes: multi lobed nucleus
Lymphocytes: single lobe
@whossayin - it's not reactive lymphocytosis because there are no buzzword type symtoms of EBV in the Q stem. Also, reactive lymphocytes look way different.
i don't understand this at all. i am completely blank...please help
@temmy. This question tests our knowledge on albinism which is normally a tyrosinase deficiency disease but the vignette states that the boy's albinism is caused by a genetic mutation in the TYRP1 gene which is shown in the biochemical pathway. A gene that helps in the synthesis of Eumelanin.
Now you have to understand that all precursors before that gene is the pathway would still be available if not increased which make 2 of the options in the question wrong.
you also have to understand this:
(Eu)melanin = (normo)melanin i.e normal melanin which is protective to the skin, decreases reactive oxygen species and gives the dark pigments to the iris, choroid, skin, hair e.t.c.
(feo)melanin = (fake)melanin i.e pheomelanin, the one present in our patient here which is less protective again the uv rays, cannot pigment and cannot decrease ROS generated in the skin.
i hope this helps
@henoch280 thank u very much! I got it right by luck but now i do understand :D
thanks. very helpful