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 +0  (nbme23#27)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6162412

Pathophysiology of the burn wound. Arturson G. Abstract The pathophysiology of the burn wound is characterized by an inflammatory reaction leading to rapid oedema formation, due to increased microvascular permeability, vasodilation and increased extravascular osmotic activity. These reactions are due to the direct heat effect on the microvasculature and to chemical mediators of inflammation. The earliest stage of vasodilatation and increased venous permeability is commonly due to histamine release. Damage to the cell membranes partly caused by oxygen-free radicals released from polymorphonuclear leucocytes would activate the enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of prostaglandin precursor (arachidonic acid) with rapid formation of prostaglandin as the result. Prostaglandins inhibit the release of norepinephrine and may thus be of importance in modulating the adrenergic nervous system which is activated in response to thermal injury. The morphological interpretations of the changes in the functional ultrastructure of the bloodlymph barrier following thermal injury seem to be an increase in the numbers of vacuoles and many open endothelial intercellular junctions. Furthermore changes of the interstitial tissue after burn trauma are of great importance. The continuous loss of fluid from the blood circulation within the thermally damaged tissue causes increased haematocrit levels and a rapid fall in plasma volume, with decreased cardiac output and hypoperfusion on the cellular level. If the fluids are not adequately restored burn shock develops. Furthermore, the burn wound provides a vast area of entry of surface infection with a high risk of septic shock. Four main principles are of utmost importance in the current management of patients with severe thermal injury, namely early wound closure, prevention of septic complications, adequate nutrition and control of the external environment.


 +0  (nbme21#40)

Question stem says: PE shows Right pupil is larger than the left pupil. (Note: It is not light reflex). And weakness with movement of eye (that means most movements).

CN III palsy - Opthalmoplegia, Ptosis, Mydriasis and loss of accommodation. Ptosis, Mydriasis and loss of accommodation are due to - Parasympathetics travel outside of CN III. So more likely CN III is damaged and not others in the cavernous sinus.





Subcomments ...

don't be a dick? not really sure what more there is to it. The patient doesn't have any other family so this woman should be considered family

aesalmon  Questions like this usually hinge on asking if you're going to follow the rules or not though, obviously the one asking her to lie and say she was her sister is wrong, but the correct answer is obviously breaking the hospice center's "policy" - presumably if the physician is sending her to hospice then they don't work there so why would the Dr. be able to just tell her its fine? +1  
hungrybox  Yeah, I got this one wrong with the same logic as you, aesalmon. +1  
emmy2k21  I genuinely interpreted this question as though the two women were in a relationship because of the quotes "my close friend". I figured significant others would be allowed to visit simply. Ha seems like I'm the only one who read too far in between the lines! +4  
dr_jan_itor  @emmy2k21 I also thought the quotes implied a lesbian relationship and that the patient was afraid to share this (they grew up at a time when it was heavily stigmatized). So i was thinking, of course you and your "special friend" can stay together. I know this is not just a phase +4  
et-tu-bromocriptine  Anything particularly wrong with A (Don't worry. I'll call you right away...")? It seemed like the most professional yet considerate answer choice. Are we supposed to imply that they're partners based on those quotation marks around "close friend"? Because otherwise it seems like too casual and less professional than A, almost as if it's breaking policy. +4  
lilmonkey  I can swear that I saw this exact same question in UWORLD before. The only reason I got it right this time. +1  
docshrek  @lilmonkey can you please give the QID for the UWorld question? +1  
jakeperalta  Can someone explain to me why following hospital policy is the wrong answer? I'm so lost.And essentially how is this option any different from the last option where he asks her to say its her sister? Both go against hospital policy. Would greatly appreciate some insight yall. +  
jakeperalta  Can someone explain to me why following hospital policy is the wrong answer? I'm so lost.And essentially how is this option any different from the last option where he asks her to say its her sister? Both go against hospital policy. Would greatly appreciate some insight yall. P.s:it struck me as a romantic relationship as well, but it doesn't clear my doubt😓😭 +  
drschmoctor  @jakeperalta Following the hospital policy is wrong because it would be cruel and unnecessarily rigid to deny a dying woman the comfort of her closest companion. Also, It would be inappropriate to ask the Pt to lie. What's the point of becoming a doctor if you have to follow some BS corporate policy instead of calling the shots and doing right by your patients? +1  


submitted by tinydoc(133),

Neuropathic Pain after stroke is central Post stroke pain Syndrome

caused by contralateral thalamic lesions

Pg. 504 FA19

chandlerbas  agreed! more specifically damage to the VPL +1  
docshrek  Pg. 403 FA 19. +