to snoo-finity ... and beyond!
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My take is that hes not super acidotic and the K is at the low end.
see the comment by @zbird, which explains that the urine anion gap is important (which I took to interpret as more important than the serum K+ level, lol, because the normal K threw me off too).
Great explanation! There's also a slide about this in the 100 Anatomy Concepts pdf but doesn't go into as much detail as this explanation. Thanks!
This was in pathoma, he said prostate cancer causes osteoblastic lesions and "the board examiners really want you to know that". also following the potential site of mets helps choose the answer
This question was tricky!
Tuberous sclerosis= Hypopigmented= Ash leaf spot (The skin lesion in NF is Hyperpigmented- Cafe au lait and in Sturge Weber it's a port wine stain (also not hypopigmented).
I'm assuming that the SINGLE raised flesh colored lesion is a Hamartoma (The angiofibromas in NF1 are typically multiple).
Although both Tuberous Sclerosis and Sturge Weber are both associated with seizures, I used all the other stuff to narrow it down to the correct answer.
Also, don't forget that there is Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity in Tuberous Sclerosis. So I think the lack of family history of "seizure or major medical illness" was there to throw us off.
Thank you! :) I thought I really knew my congenital disorders, so I was a little annoyed when they trotted this question out
Yes smoking is a risk factor but not the best option among the choices given. Check FA, it says that it occurs more in tall thin young males. Smoking isn’t even mentioned. Tall & thin males are more at risk because they have more negative intrapleural pressure. Check Uworld for this.
You have to think about this using the concept of CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY. Another way to ask this type of question is like this: “I show you a patient with spontaneous pneumothorax. Which other thing is most likely to be true about this patient?” Said a different way: Given a CONDITION [spontaneous pneumo], what other finding is most likely to be the case? Still other words: Given a pool of people with spontaneous pneumothorax, what other thing is most likely to be true about them?
In other words, of all people who end up with spontaneous pneumo, the most common other thing about them is that they are MALE & THIN. If I gave you a bucket of spontaneous pneumo patients -- and you reached your hand in there and pulled one out -- what scenario would be more common: In your hand you have a smoker or in your hand you have a thin male? The latter.
Rupture of pulmonary blebs are a common cause of spontaneous pneumothorax in young adult males that are tall and thin. I know it's also associated with smoking, but gender and body habitus seemed like the more likely answer here since the patient is a young male.