Welcome to bbr’s page.
Contributor score: 22
if a disease or syndrome has known risk of suicide, and you fail to assess for it, that's negligence brotha (“if you suspect, you must protect!”)
I think this one was pretty easy if you just know the regional anatomy. That was the only answer choice that could remotely have that presentation, so I think it was just testing your knowledge of the structures listed relative to the description.
aorta is also behind of liver...
I also didn't realize the surgeon's hands would so deep in he could touch the IVC on a Lappy....kinda eliminates the point of a Lappy....
"A laparotomy is a surgical procedure involving a large incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity." Exploratory laparOTOMY very different than LaparoSCOPY, which is what I think you may be confused about. One is a gaping hole from which you can observe everything, and the other uses tiny incisions and scopes. Even still, a hand port used during laparoscopy can allow for digital manipulation of organs as needed.
I dont think the physician caused the avulsion, I think it was there already and he grazed the area. Causing it to fully avulse and break what ever clotting was going on.
Isn't is just motor symptoms, thats why its Partial? Maybe Im conflating things here.
But complex partial decoded would be: Complex (lose consciousness) and partial (just 1 area of the brain, just motor).
simple seizure wont have altered cociousness....alt. concious = complex or generaliised
What's the difference between a complex partial and an absence seizure?
Absence - they just gaze off as if they're daydreaming.
Left homonymous hemianopia w/o macular sparing can also occur due to damage to parietal and temporal lobes. But occipital lobe damage is more common.
macular sparing will only occur if there is an infarct of the posterior coronary artery supplying the occipital lobe. this is because the macular region of the visual cortex has a double blood supply from the middle cerebral artery and the posterior cerebral artery. this woman has breast cancer hence the mets are probably directly to the occipital lobe causing left homonymous hemianopia WITHOUT macular sparing.
FA pg 542 look at the illustration: it says number 3 (left homonymous hemianopia WITHOUT macular sparing) and 6 (if PCA infarct when there is left homonymous hemianopia WITH macular sparing)
It is sad, but we are on the front lines and can intervene. And so we should keep an eye out for these types of situations. As mad eye moody said....."constant vigilance!"
Also, when Meningococcal meningitis is treated ... close contacts are also treated prophylactically whereas the others typically are not. There's also a subunit vaccine for n. meningitis due to high infectivity rate especially in crowded establishments.
So, Cholera is also p2p but Mening is more likely?
in cholera people to water => water to people
Remember the fire sprinklers from Sketchy for M. Meningitis. as respiratory droplets are the easiest to transmit from person to person.
but the poop water comes from people so....
Respiratory dropplets is easier than fecal-oral tho
Can also reason that n. meningitidis is common in college students because they live in close quarters which suggests high rate of transmission even amongst immunocompetent individuals
I can see why fecal-oral can seem like person-to-person transmission. What helped me reason it was that in countries with lots of cases of cholera, the primary reason is lack of water sanitation. Even when you google cholera, you get pictures of people collecting dirty water and how the WHO is aiming to reduce cases of the disease by improving water sources. Therefore it's more of a systemic/environmental problem rather than the fact that one person accidentally touched another person's poopy parts and then transmitted it to their own mouth, making this less of a person-to-person thing, especially when compared to another answer choice such as Meningococcal meningitis.
To add, think of the water in cholera as a reservoir. The bug is going to hang out there between infecting another person. In meningitis it seems we are going from 1 persons saliva to another. Without much of a reservoir inbetween. (might be using the word reservoir incorrectly).
agreed! more specifically damage to the VPL
Pg. 403 FA 19.
Both commenters above got the page wrong; it's FA 2019 p. 503.
what were the odd of both being wrong
503 in 2019
Interesting that its seen in 10% of strokes. Starts with allodynia ---> neuropathic pain.
Hungrybox aka life saver
....uh yeah im pretty sure we just call em "Auer Rods" now.
Appreciate the answer tho!
haha good point
mitral valve would only have 2 cusps even if it were replaced though right?...
After staring at this for awhile, I wanted to elaborate on this to make it even clearer. The 3 areas that meet at a point would be the 3 cusps. These 3 flaps are going to get blown open. Means flow is from down to up.
the atrioventricular bundle is also called the bundle of his
What if it had said "AV node", that's in the interaatrial septum as well, right? I'm wondering, that could be answer as well. (FA 2019 pg291)
This is also why ob-gyn's will massage the uterus (which is part of the birth canal) after delivery. It's to get the body to release oxytocin and cause the uterus to contract (to prevent postpartum hemorrhage)
Please why is estrogen not the answer, I thought estrogen would upregulate oxytocin receptors and increase oxytocin secretion?
During pregnancy, oxytocin RECEPTORS are upregulated (by estrogen) as parturition approaches, but the ferugson reflex creates a positive feedback loop where the dilation of the cervix further releases more oxytocin. The inciting event that starts this feedback loop is the dilation of the cervix leading to a direct release of oxytocin, not the presence of more oxytocin receptors.
To add, the positive feedback loop here is pretty elegant. Basically, it seems like the cervix doesnt want anything in it. When its stretched --> oxytocin --> contract uterus --> push baby --> more stretch at cervix---> more oxytocin (and forward).
The positive feedback loop aspect is that oxytocin-based contractions cause more dilation of the cervix (as the baby moves into it!).
and (just for completeness), promotes Th1
what does "Mac" stand for? "it will increase the mac molecules of the surface of the cells." Thanks!
mac= membrane attack complex
I didn't even think about the motor part during the question, but it might be related to the homonculus (FA 2020 pg 502). Motor and sensory areas of the lower face generally fall towards the lower half of the brain. Answers B/C/D would probably show some hand or arm involvement.
I know this isnt a great answer, but I was assuming that they wanted us to "play the game" and decide broca/wernicke. It seems set up for us answering that type of question. Going off buzzwords like "fluency", "phrase length", "comphrension".
Is the plus/minus sumbol always used for standard deviation? Or can it be used for confidence interval.
Yes, correct. The 5'GGCC option could cause some confusion.
I really don't understand the question nor the answer. Can someone explain it for dummies like me?
yes please.. I'm with guillo12 on this
questions says you've created a new cut site,
1. look at the region on the sick vs healthy. The C to G is the change
2. Write out the sick "CCGG" from 5'3'- you could write out the whole thing, but the answer only has 4 letters, so being lazy here
3. write under it, its complement, the dna base pair. So "GGCC"
4. remember both strands are going in opposite directions when you write them out on top of each other.
5. So the bottom strand actually reads 5' CCGG 3' so that is the answer
I hope that clears it up
To add to the palindrome part, many restriction endonucleases actually function as dimers. Each individual subunit usually has a nickase, so to create a double-stranded break in DNA, they must bind a palindrome so that each enzymatic domain creates a single-stranded break (thus a double-stranded break).
Why do we start from CCGG? Why not CGGG or TACC?
Why do we start from CCGG? Why not CGGG or TACC?
I think its due to the palindrome requirement?
Maybe I'm missing a part here, but the substrate that the enzyme will bind to will be the DNA. I went with the line that was from the questions stem, as it is the mtuated DNA will be recognized by the restriction enzyme. I didnt see the need to convert it into base pairing. Let me know what you guys think.
@bbr I agree. I'm definitely not an expert in these lab tests, but the question asks "substrate specificity." I was thinking that it would recognize the abnormal DNA; nothing to do with RNA. I didn't know about the palindromic preference of restriction enzymes, but I don't think there's any need to figure out base-pairing and whatnot here. (At least for this question it didn't work out that way!)
sugaplum, I'd give you an award if this was Reddit
Usually on the left because the liver prevents herniation through the right hemidiaphragm
aka congenital diaphragmatic hernia
What's weird to me is that if you usually see air in the intestines on x-ray when they are in the abdomen, why is there no air in the thorax in CDH? The intestines should still have air in them, right? Also, what is filling the abdomen that causes it to appear grayed-out in CDH?
@pg32 You can actually see a gastric bubble if you squint hard enough. Look at where the NG tube is placed; there is a radiolucency to the patient's right of the NG tube which is most likely the stomach. It probably then is radioopaque distally due to the pyloric sphincter, and air having a tendency to rise.
Any idea what "absence of bowel gas in the abdomen" is referring to?
my interpretation was absence of bowel gas in abdomen --> the bowel is not in the abdomen --> incomplete formation of pleuroperitoneal membrane
bowel gas is a normal finding that you often see on x rays of the abdomen in a normal patient
@rkdang is it also abnormal that you cannot see any air in the lungs? This threw me off when I was trying to read the radiograph.
It just further helps to tell us this is mitochondrial. I guess they are doing us a favor.