53 yo woman with GERD.
66 yo man, 2 months no erection
Libido: decreased; Noctural erections: normal
48 yo woman, 2 weeks fever and mucus in stool
Mechanism of action of tumor suppressor genes
Inhibition of cell-cycle regulation
60 yo man, 2 weeks flank pain and blood in urine
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma
29 yo man untreated HIV
CD8+ T lymphocyte–mediated killing
62 yo woman sudden weakness of left leg
Right anterior cerebral artery
Decreased lysosomal hydrolase activity
13 yo girl with mother for routine visit
Ask mother to leave the room before asking the patient any questions.
32 yo man on primaquine
Enzyme deficiency in the erythrocytes
12 yo girl, 5 days unable to walk but unconcerned
5 yo boy, right eye pain 1 week
36 yo woman believes she had a heart attack
Advantage of randomized controlled studies
Better control for confounding variables
Best testing strategy when treatment has serious side effects
Test 3 followed by test 1 if test 3 is positive
62 yo man, decreased speech fluency after cerebral infarct
Area labeled by letter 'A'
38 yo woman, 6 months depressed mood, joint pain, weakness, memory problems + erythema migrans
24 yo man, generalized tonic-clonic seizure; somnolent, hyponatremia; drinks 6 liters of water in 24 hours but says he's not thirsty
Retinoic acid receptors and HOX gene products bind specific DNA sequences; what is the function of these molecules?
Lab findings expected after administration of insulin and saline
Potassium decreased; Bicarbonate increased; BUN decreased; Arterial pH increased; blood CO2 increased
25 yo man, exercise test. Most likely physiologic changes
Arteriolar diameter increased; Tissue adenosine concentration increased; Vascular conductance increased
40 yo woman, chorionic villus sampling
Confined placental mosaicism
Scurvy symptoms associated with decreased activity of which enzyme?
10 yo girl, slightly painful 2 mm subcutaneous nodule on chin
48 yo woman, 3 months fatigue; X-rays reveal generalized osteopenia
Paracrine stimulation of osteoclasts by osteoblasts
Case-control study; 95 percent confidence interval was [reported range]. Most appropriate interpretation?
The likelihood is 95% that the true value for the odds ratio is between [the reported range]
Mechanism by which action potentials permit currents to flow deep within skeletal muscle fibers
Transmission along T tubules
75 yo man with dementia; no advanced directives
Encourage the family to come to a consensus based on their perception of the patient's wishes
2 day old newborn with jaundice
Conjugation of bilirubin to glucuronic acid
45 yo woman undergoing vinblastine chemotherapy
Decreased number of neutrophils
Pathway of the transepithelial transport of water
Pathway denoted by letter 'C'
Decreased pulmonary artery pressure facilitated by increase in the intracellular concentration of which molecule?
30 yo woman, 1 week of visual difficulty
Right optic nerve
Cells most responsible for graft rejection?
23 yo woman engages in 30 minutes of strenuous exercise
Increased, as a result of distention and recruitment of microvessels
13 yo girl grows over the summer; what accounts for increased intestinal absorption of calcium?
Hormones derived from 7-dehydrocholesterol
45 yo patient, chronic alcohol dependence, foul-smelling brownish sputum
Chest radiograph labeled 'D'
30 yo man and 24 yo woman; best estimate that child will have oculocutaneous albinism?
1 in 600
Blood gas values: arterial O2
pressure: 96 mm Hg; Arterial O2
content: 12.0 vol%
74 yo man; continuous systolic-diastolic bruit over R posterior flank
Renal artery stenosis
40 yo man, 1 month increasing malaise, nausea, abdominal pain; CD8+ T lymphocytes resulting in liver injury
15 yo girl receives bone marrow transplant; karyotype reveals 46,XY
19 yo man stabbed in abdomen; has been incarcerated for armed robbery
Antisocial personality disorder
52 yo man, 4 hours of severe headache, anxiety, sweating, palpitations; what happens after injection with propranolol?
Increased total peripheral resistance and decreased cardiac output
45 yo man, lost outdoors in the Rocky Mountains for 10 days
25 yo woman requests prenatal diagnosis at 12 weeks gestation
Chorionic villi sampling
41 yo woman, 34 weeks gestation; amniocentesis shows lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio of 1.5:1
Decreased functional residual capacity
Study conducted to determine effects of drug X on respiratory function
52 yo man, sudden onset of substernal chest pain
Schematic representation of eukaryotic translation
Binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A site
39 yo man, 6 months of headache, muscle aches, fatigue; distal motor weakness of extremities
26 yo woman after jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity; most likely deficiency?
11 yo boy, right mid-thigh pain for 2 weeks; femur X-ray reveals single osteolytic lesion in mid-diaphysis
60 yo woman, 1 year of episodic involuntary rhythmic jerking of R leg and foot; brain MRI reveals 2 cm round enhancing lesion within interhemispheric fissure
60 yo man, 20-year history of hypertension; shortness of breath and fatigue for 3 months
Cardiac output: decreased; CVP: increased
30 yo woman with Marfan syndrome, sudden onset of tearing chest pain
Cardiac index: 2.0;
Right atrial pressure: 18;
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure: 18;
Pulmonary diastolic arterial pressure: 20;
Systemic vascular resistance: 2,000
54 yo man, routine exam; given an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
Area labeled by letter 'F' (efferent arteriole)
52 yo woman prescribed cisplatin for non-small cell carcinoma of the lung
Oral fluid therapy for diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae
Membrane transport mechanism denoted by letter 'C' (Sodium-Glucose cotransporter)
24 yo woman; renal oxygen consumption found to be 20 mL per minute; which process consumes the most oxygen?
30 yo woman with high-grade intraepithelial lesion
Superficial to the basement membrane